Ngā Tohuwhenua Mai Te Rangi: A New Zealand Archeology in Aerial Photographs
Te Tapiri, a Ngāti Manawa pā of 1865 on the route from the Urewera Ranges and Whirinaki River to the Kāingaroa Plains
This pā is a good example of a fortification created by a simple interior trench and external breastwork forming the defensive perimeter. The site is some 60 by 15 m in plan. Within the defensive perimeter, the U-shaped earthen walls of three whare can be seen. At the southern and northern ends there were also rifle pits (probably roofed) immediately inside the breastwork and linked by the rifle trench. Although there are some slight buttresses and traverses in the perimeter breastwork, this site would have been subject to enfilading fire from a slightly higher hill some 150 m to the south if it had not been occupied by Ngāti Rangitihi, Te Arawa allies of Ngāti Manawa.