Historic Poverty Bay and the East Coast, N.I., N.Z.
List of Victims
List of Victims
The names and ages of the Europeans and half-castes who were slain on the morning of 10 November (with the addition of Mrs. Wilson, who succumbed to her injuries on 17 December) were:
Major R. N. Biggs (N.Z. Militia), aged 38; his wife Emily, 19; their child George, 1 year; and the nurse, Jane Farrell, aged 26 years. Captain James Wilson (N.Z. Militia), aged 32; his wife Alice, 30; and three of their four children: Alice, 6 years; Edwin J., 4 years; and Jessie, 1½ years, together with the manservant, Private John Moran (N.Z. Militia), 60 years old.
Lieutenant James Walsh (P.B.M.R.), aged 33; his wife Emma, 26 years; their child Nora Ellen, 1 year; and his partner, Sergeant James Padbury (P.B.M.R.), 32 years.
Trooper John McCulloch (P.B.M.R.), aged 28; his wife Jane, 25; their child Emily Jane, 2 years; and a niece, Mary McDonald, 7 years. Maria Goldsmith, 16 years; and Albert Edward Goldsmith, 4 years (both half-castes).
Trooper John Cadle (P.B.M.R.), 28 years.
Trooper John Mann (P.B.M.R.), 29 years; his wife Emma, 23, and infant (age unknown).
Lieutenant George Neville Dodd (N.Z. Militia), 40 years, and Trooper Richard Peppard (P.B.M.R.), 25 years, and their assistant, Trooper Richard Rathbone (P.B.M.R.), whose age is unknown.
The number of loyal natives slain was set down by W. L. page 272 Williams at about 30. Not all of the names have been traced. Those known are:
At Pukepuke: Himiona Katipa, Paora te Wharau, Ratana Tukurangi, Rangi Whaitiri and Riki Aata.
At Waitaria: Tutere Kapai (or Konohi) and Eriapa Kapai.
Near Matawhero: Piripi Taketake, his wife Harata and three children (Pera, Taraipene and Te Paea), Hoera Whakamiha and Pera Kararehe (or Taihuka). [Kararehe was the elder brother of Matenga Taihuka. Both Matenga and his father (Pehimana) were among the Chatham Island exiles. Matenga became one of Te Kooti's lieutenants, but deserted him, swore allegiance to the Queen and accepted Christianity.]
At Oweta: Ten, but of whom the names of only five have been traced, viz., Paratene Turangi, Ihimaera Hokopu, Renata Whakaari, Iraia Riki and Te Hira Hokopu (or Hira te Kai), who was fatally wounded and died on 6 December.
Others known to have been slain are: Rawiri Taiau and, on 12 December, David Kiniha (14 years).
On 11 November additional Europeans were slain as under:
Trooper Robert Newnham (P.B.M.R.), aged 60 years; his wife Jane, 45, and an adopted European child named Munn, 1 year old.
The European victim, half-caste victims and native victim of the Opou massacre on 12 December, 1868, were:
Trooper Finlay Ferguson (P.B.M.R.), aged 28 years; William Wyllie (half-caste son of J. R. Wyllie), aged 14 years; Benjamin Mackey (half-caste son of James Mackey), aged 14 years. David Kiniha's name is included in the list of natives slain.
In the aggregate the slain comprised: Europeans 29, of whom 13 were adult males, 7 adult females and 9 children; half-castes 4, of whom 3 were males and one a female; natives approximately 30; grand total, 63.
By 17 November—a week after the major calamity—further contingents of native friendlies had reached Poverty Bay from Hawke's Bay and the East Coast—in all, between 300 and 400. A small detachment of military settlers had also come to hand from Hawke's Bay. On the 18th a large armed party was sent out, under Captain A. Tuke, to bury the victims. Most of the bodies lay well clear of the debris of the burned homes; some had been mutilated by pigs.
The New Zealand Herald says that Major and Mrs. Biggs and child were buried together. A separate grave was made for the body of the nurse (Mrs. Farrell). Captain Wilson, his three children and Moran were buried in one grave. Maria Goldsmith and her brother (both of whom had been decapitated) were buried together. Mann and his wife were also placed in a single grave. The body of their child was not found. Cadle was buried alone. Walsh, his wife, child and partner were interred together. The child had been decapitated. One grave was used for the burial of the McCullochs. No bodies were found at Newnham's page 273 place, but there was a newly-dug grave there. Dodd and Peppard could not be buried until 2 December, on account of the proximity of the rebels. Rathbone's body was not found. On 2 July, 1869, the bodies were reinterred at Makaraka in the presence of a full muster of the settlers and a large number of natives. Twelve coffins were used.
There were 45 Europeans and half-castes in Matawhero (five miles from Gisborne) when that area was invaded. Twenty-one were slain outright and one (Mrs. Wilson) received fatal injuries. The number of Europeans and half-castes at Makaraka (four miles from Gisborne) was 56, of whom all but three escaped. All the other European residents on the Flats got safely away, excepting three in the locality now known as King's Road and a like number on Repongaere. Most of the native victims lived on the outskirts of, or at no great distance from, Matawhero.