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Temperance and Prohibition in New Zealand

XI — Prohibition ‘Who'S Who’ in New Zealand

page 205

Prohibition ‘Who'S Who’ in New Zealand

Note—A widespread appeal was made throughout the Dominion for the names and records of those who merited inclusion in this ‘Who's Who.’ Great difficulty has been experienced in obtaining the needful information. Many stalwarts still living, modestly desired to be omitted, facts concerning those who have passed on were found to be scanty, and the task of compiling the list was rendered extraordinarily difficult. It is felt that there are many omissions; and that the data is in some cases meagre. It is hoped, however, that the record will be of service, if only as a foundation for a more complete list as additions and corrections become available.


ADAMS, Justice A. S., took an unfrequented way toward his present eminence. The legal profession inclines toward the broad way in which many walk. To be where men most do congregate in week-days and on Sundays is the tactic of most young barristers. But A. S. Adams had other ideas. We do not seem to remember him as a Rugger player, or as a Grand Master of Masons. We doubt whether he even bet the proverbial hat in his well-lived life. He kept an exacting conscience. There is some authority for supposing that such a conscience costs £10,000 a year and extras. He didn't care what it cost. He reflected that he had to live with himself and resolved that at any cost he would be friends with his housemate. He kept his pledge. We have heard many things said of him, but never one that carried an insinuation of bad faith or of moral cowardice. He joined the Baptist Church in Presbyterian Dunedin. Later on he joined the Blue Ribbon Army in that Scottish town when ‘pubs’ were as plentiful as blackberries on a bramble. Sheer legal ability and boundless capacity to take pains, put him in the forefront of that Bar which has contained and still contains many foremost Dominion lawyers. But no snowstorm of briefs prevented him from blue-ribbon work, or kept him from Alliance conferences. His colleagues in that great Reform found in his counsels a strong tower and a rock of defence when Government brought in Liquor Bills. His shrewdness and far-sightedness are embodied in the legislation that controls the issue. The correspondence columns of the Otago Daily Times were enlivened for years with his polemics, and liquor page 206 advocates learned to be wary of indiscretions when A.S.A. might be expected next morning. How quick and killing his reply to that famous outburst of the late Prof. Salmond was! Those who know him revere him. He grapples his friends to himself with hoops of steel. Among the stalwarts of this great reform he occupies a place of singular honour and respect. For more than thirty years—up to the time of his elevation to the Judges' Bench—he was known throughout the Dominion as an able Prohibition advocate. His addresses were of a spiritual nature and his religious intensity gripped his hearers. He has the distinction of having been seven times elected President of the New Zealand Alliance, a position in which he sought to serve God and man. He has been a valuable asset to the Prohibition movement.—J. J. North.

ADAMS, Arthur gave effective service as a Good Templar and Band of Hope worker. The Adams family have loyally supported the temperance cause, especially in Dunedin district.

ADAMS, F. B., B.A., LL.M. Barrister and solicitor. The Crown Prosecutor at Dunedin. Compiler for many years of the annual Drink Bill of the Dominion.

ADAMS, H. S., M.A., LL.B. Barrister and solicitor. For several years on the executive of the New Zealand Alliance and now re-elected president of the Otago United Temperance Reform Council.

ADAMS, J. A. D., rendered good service in the ranks of Good Templary, in Bands of Hope, and Gospel Temperance Societies. He was elected a Vice-President of the N.Z. Alliance the year it was founded. He is also the author of several books.

DAMS, R. N., in addition to many years of temperance work on moral suasion lines, took the initiative in forming the Roslyn and Kaikorai Gospel Temperance Union, which was a live organization. He was Chairman of the first meeting and was afterwards Vice-President of the Union.

AITKEN, Jas.; who was for a long period headmaster of the State School, Victoria Avenue, Wanganui, has, in an able and courageous manner used his voice and pen in fighting the drink traffic.

ALCORN, Robert; was a staunch Ashburton prohibitionist who loyally stood by the cause when it was bitterly opposed.

ALDRIDGE, Pastor Geo.; for many years a Church of Christ minister in Auckland, was a recognized leader of the temperance forces in the City. He was a gifted and acceptable platform speaker. At councils or in convention he was most helpful in discussions or by reading of papers.

ANDREWS, Geo.; of Ashburton, during a long life, rendered much self-denying and courageous service. He has been a standard bearer, giving freely of his services as an organizer and platform speaker in the campaigns.

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ARMSTRONG, Rev. A. A., for many years an enthusiastic worker for No-License and Prohibition; was in Ohinemuri when that electorate carried No-License. Relinquishing Church service to work for some years as organizer for the New Zealand Alliance in various parts of the Dominion, being latterly in charge of the Wellington-Nelson-Marlborough districts. Keenly interested in Band of Hope work and educational effort.

ATKINSON, Arthur Richmond, B.A.; is the nephew of Sir H. Atkinson, formerly Premier of New Zealand and Mr. Justice Richmond. After a successful scholastic career in New Zealand and Oxford, England, he commenced practice as a barrister in Wellington. Coming in contact with F. W. Isitt, L. M. Isitt, and T. E. Taylor, he became an ardent Prohibitionist. His legal knowledge has been of great help to the Cause. He has keen logical and analytical faculties, and is able to dissect and expose the fallacies of his opponents and lay a sure foundation on which to build his position. In Parliament and in the City Council he has displayed statesmanship. As a writer he is well known in the daily press and in popular magazines, also as N.Z. correspondent to the London Times, and member of the Round Table Group. His articles on the temperance question, the campaign papers he has edited, and his masterly reply to Prof. Salmond, have been valuable contributions to the Prohibition movement. For many years he has been a member of the N.Z. Alliance Executive, and his election to the position of President of the Alliance in 1921 was the Prohibition party's approval of his character and work.

ATKINSON, Sir Harry; was greatly respected as a patriotic statesman and Premier of New Zealand. He showed practical sympathy with every moral and social movement. He was a Vice-President of the New Zealand Alliance from its foundation until his death in 1892.

AVERILL, Archbishop A. W., Bishop of the Diocese of Auckland and Archbishop of the Church of the Province of New Zealand, has said, ‘Personally I am not technically a prohibitionist … I cannot conscientiously vote for the continuance of a trade which I am convinced does more harm than good to my fellow-creatures.’ Dr. Averill is a staunch temperance advocate.

AYSON, T., was President of the Temperance Societies of the Gore district in 1901. In 1905 he travelled round the Dominion proclaiming the benefits of No-License in the Mataura electorate, and in other ways served the cause.

BASSET, W. G., J.P., was born in New Plymouth eighty years ago. After being for some years a builder and contractor, he settled in Wanganui, where he owned a large timber business. As a public spirited man and a member of many public bodies, he worked for the town's welfare. A leading Methodist official and a philanthropist, he page 208 was ever a Temperance worker. He was a foundation member of the New Zealand Alliance, of which he was a Vice-President. For thirty-three years he had a seat on the Wanganui Licensing Bench and for many years was chairman of the Prohibition League. A man of high ideals and the soul of honour he was greatly respected by his fellow citizens. He died in 1928.

BAXTER, John Street, was born at Banff, Scotland. His father was a Presbyterian minister. Mr. Baxter arrived in New Zealand in 1880 and three years later commenced business in Invercargill, where, though the population numbered only a few thousands, there were thirty-two public houses, three wholesale licenses and two club charters operating. He commenced to fight the liquor trade, and for more than forty years has been a recognized leader in the Prohibition movement. Some years ago handsome presentations were made to Mr. and Mrs. Baxter as a recognition of their self-denying labours in the cause of social reform. In the pulpit, as local preacher of the Presbyterian Church, on the platform, in the press, and in daily life, he has, with ardour and courage, advocated the principles of Prohibition.

BEDFORD, Dr. H. D., M.A., LLD.; born in Leeds, Yorkshire, in 1877, Hugh Dodgsham Bedford came with his parents to New Zealand in 1886. With no advantages other than his own brilliant qualities, he was chosen Macandrew Scholar for political economy at Otago University, 1899, took his B.A. in 1901, and his M.A. in 1902 and gained his LL.D. for a treatise on Banking in 1916. For eight years he was lecturer on economics and history at Otago University, and reached the status of Professor in 1915. His gifts as a lecturer and teacher were of the highest order, and his moral qualities and passion for the welfare of mankind brought him to the forefront of the Prohibition movement. As an Independent Liberal in politics he was elected with the largest vote cast for any candidate in 1902, being then only twenty-five years of age. Dr. Bedford saw war service overseas. He met an untimely death by drowning at Whangarei on Sunday, February 4, 1918, whilst on a speaking tour with the late Rev. John Dawson. His death removed one of the ablest, most promising and valuable personalities in the temperance movement and one of the shining lights in the New Zealand educational world.

BEGG, A. C., was the son of the Rev. Dr. Begg, the distinguished Edinburgh divine, who occupied a prominent position in the Free Church of Scotland. Mr. A. C. Begg was a leading citizen of Dunedin. He twice unsuccessfully stood for Parliament, though he received substantial support. He was an active worker in the Prohibition cause and an official of the Otago Prohibition Council until his death.

BELL, The Rt. Hon. Sir Francis, P.C., G.C.M.G., K.C., M.L.C.; was born at Nelson in 1851, and became a barrister in 1874 and
Mrs. Lovell-Smith,W C.T.U. leader in women's enfranchisement

Mrs. Lovell-Smith,
W C.T.U. leader in women's enfranchisement

Mrs. R. B. Cole,Ex-President W.C.T.U

Mrs. R. B. Cole,
Ex-President W.C.T.U

Mrs. A. R. Atkinson,For many years an outstanding prohibition worker; ex-President W.C.T.U

Mrs. A. R. Atkinson,
For many years an outstanding prohibition worker; ex-President W.C.T.U

Mrs. Don,Ex-Dominion President W.C.T.U. Notable Prohibition orator

Mrs. Don,
Ex-Dominion President W.C.T.U. Notable Prohibition orator

Mrs. Harrison-Lee-Cowie.Internationally known W.C.T.U. worker and remarkable speaker

Mrs. Harrison-Lee-Cowie.
Internationally known W.C.T.U. worker and remarkable speaker

Mrs. N. Peryman,Lifelong worker, Editor W.C.T.U. ‘White Ribbon.’

Mrs. N. Peryman,
Lifelong worker, Editor W.C.T.U. ‘White Ribbon.’

Miss C. Henderson, B.A.,Corresponding Secretary, W.C.T.U

Miss C. Henderson, B.A.,
Corresponding Secretary, W.C.T.U

Mrs. J. McCombs,Notable member W.C.T.U., and social worker, Christchurch

Mrs. J. McCombs,
Notable member W.C.T.U., and social worker, Christchurch

page 209 Crown Solicitor in 1878. He was Mayor of Wellington in 1891, 1892, and 1897, elected M.H.R. in 1893, and appointed to Legislative Council, 1912. He has been Prime Minister, Attorney General, Minister of Internal Affairs and External Affairs, Lands, Education, Justice, State Forests. He has also taken a deep interest in sport, having been President of many athletic bodies. He has given valuable assistance to the Prohibition movement by the use of his legal knowledge in defending the cause in the courts and on the platform.

BELLRINGER, Charles E., M.P., J.P.; was born in New Plymouth, February 16, and is the son of James Bellringer, who was Mayor of the town for four years. He has been Member of the New Plymouth Harbour Board seventeen years and Chairman since 1922. Borough Councillor, President of the United Fire Brigades Association of New Zealand, Grand Master N.Z. Branch Manchester Independent Order of Oddfellows, forty-six years a Methodist local preacher, and has occupied many other public positions. He is a loyal prohibitionist and in his public positions has stood by his principles.

BENNETT, The Right Rev. F. A. The Right Rev. F. A. Bennett, first Bishop of Aotearoa, is the first member of the Maori race to become a bishop. He was born at Ohinemutu, the headquarters of the Arawa tribe, in the year 1872. His father was Thomas, son of Rev. Dr. John Bennett, M.D., D.D., who was appointed by Sir George Gray as first Registrar-General of N.Z. His mother was a chieftainness of the Arawa tribe. Our first Native Bishop, who was trained under Bishop Suter, and later under Bishop Mule, has for thirty-two years laboured incessantly amongst the Maoris in different parts of the Dominion with considerable success, being instrumental in erecting many schools, Mission Halls, Churches and a Maori hostel. He is an eminent Maori scholar, and has a deep understanding of the Maori people, their temperament, customs, traditions, and art, and holds the rank of chief amongst the Maori people. For many years he has been editor of a Maori magazine which circulates all over the Dominion, dealing with moral, social, educational and religious matters that affect the Maori people. He has been extensively engaged in reform schemes amongst the Maori people, and was one of the outstanding and original members of the Young Maori Party movement. Bishop Bennett has always taken a strong stand on the side of Prohibition, in his public addresses and in articles in both Pakeha and Maori. He drives home the fact that the Maori had no intoxicating liquor in this country before the Pakeha's arrival. Bishop Bennett has an optimistic nature, an attractive personality, is a gifted speaker, has a rich deep voice, and has spiritual ideals.

BEVAN, A., during his forty-seven years' residence at Opiro, Southland, was at various times president, secretary, and treasurer of the Awarua No- page 210 License League. He was a founder of the first Gospel Temperance Society in Southland in 1882, and also of the first Good Templars Lodge in that district, which was the second Lodge in New Zealand. The members of his family have followed in his footsteps.

‘Blamires Bros.’ The, are three Methodist ministers who have rendered helpful service. The Rev. H. L. and the Rev. E. O. Blamires were for some years members of the Alliance Executive and the Rev. E. P. Blamires has worked among the young as the connexional agent of his Church.

BONE, A., of Hawera, has for many years been president and secretary of the Prohibition League.

BOWMAN, C., of Gore, was one who assisted in the formation of the Mornington Total Abstinence Society and Band of Hope in 1869. Mr. George Watson and Mr. Bamford were his colleagues.

BOWMAN, Mrs. The work of Mrs. Bowman as an organizer did much to win No-License for Ashburton, her home electorate. She paid the price of her service in broken health and early death, but counted not her life dear.

BOWRAN, George, of Christchurch, is a well-known business man who has been associated with the temperance movement since the early days. In 1891, when Licensing Committees were elected on a ratepayers' franchise, he stood as a Temperance candidate, and up to the present time has heartily supported the Cause.

BRAME, John, whose father was a Baptist minister in Birmingham, England, arrived in New Zealand in 1864. He was secretary of the Auckland Prohibition League and devoted much energy to securing the direct vote and the political enfranchisement of women. He died in 1903, aged sixty-nine years.

BRECHIN, John, Senr. of Wanganui, was a Presbyterian elder, well known because of his sterling religious character and as a worker in the temperance cause.

BRENT, S. T., J.P. came to Rotorua in 1874, and was a loyal standard bearer. He commenced the first Temperance hotels in the town. In 1883 he began to build what in the town is known as the popular Bathgate House. He was patriarchal in appearance, upright in character, generous in disposition and a supporter of all worthy causes. He was born in Canada in 1834 and arrived at Nelson in 1854.

BRIDGE, G., of Wanganui, was a well-known, public-spirited man who, during a strenuous life, rendered excellent service to the cause of education. For many years he occupied the position of treasurer to the Prohibition League.

BRIDGES, Jabez was organizer in the Masterton electorate during the campaign when No-License was won.

BROAD, A. C., of Dunedin, was a vigorous and liberal supporter of the Prohibition movement. He assisted at the founding of the Roslyn and Kaikoura Gospel page 211 Temperance Union. In the early stormy days of the No-License fight he was a brave warrior. Hopeful and cheerful he had an inspiring influence. He was treasurer of the Otago Prohibition Council. In 1889 he was elected Vice-President of the Alliance. Mr. and Mrs. Broad were valiant fighters in the Women Franchise Campaign.

BROWN, Byron, of Otaki, has taken a keen interest in Prohibition and is an effective platform speaker, stressing the economic advantages of Prohibition.

BROWN, J. W., of Wellington, by his work as honorary treasurer of the N.Z. Alliance Funds for many years, rendered a helpful contribution to the cause.

BULL, T. J., was for some years a diligent and efficient Alliance agent. Before his engagement he had done much effective temperance work. He was a minister of the Church of Christ.

BUTTLE, Rev. J. N., received a public presentation from the Timaru No-License workers on March 16, 1903, when reference was made to his qualities as a leader and his open-air work.

CAMERON, D. C. Mr. Donald Charles Cameron of Dunedin was born at Inverness, Scotland, on April 17, 1850. In 1854 his father and mother migrated to Geelong, Victoria. In 1861 his father came to the Otago goldfields and his mother and family joined him in Dunedin, in 1862. Donald at once began to take an interest in the local Band of Hope and afterwards was secretary for some three years. In 1871 he became a charter member of the Antidote Division Sons and Daughters of Temperance Benefit Society. After passing through all the offices, he became Worthy Patriarch and also Grand Worthy Patriarch of the Grand Division. In 1872 the I.O.G.T. was introduced to New Zealand, and he became one of the first members of the ‘Pioneer of Dunedin Lodge.’ In 1874 he was a representative to the institution of the Grand Lodge in Christchurch, where he was elected Grand Vice Templar, and, at the following Annual Session in Dunedin, he was elected G. secretary, which office he held for thirty-three years. He was afterwards elected Grand Chief Templar for four years. He represented the Grand Lodge at the meeting of ‘Worthy Grand Lodge of Australasia’ held in Adelaide in 1887 and also the ‘International Supreme Lodge’ held in Toronto, Canada, in 1899, where he was elected International Assistant Secretary. During this visit he attended several I.O.G.T. Lodges in America, England and Scotland. A branch of the I.O.R. being opened in Dunedin, he joined up in 1878, and after passing through all the offices, became a representative and member of District Lodge. Mr. Cameron has always been a strong believer in Prohibition for the State'—hence a regular subscriber to the New Zealand Alliance, of which he is a Past vice-president. For twenty-four years he published, on his own financial responsibility The Temperance Herald and Temper- page 212 ance Standard. Mr. John W. Jago was honorary editor and these papers did splendid service in promoting Temperance and Prohibition. In 1874 Mr. Cameron married Christine McNeill, of Balclutha, who was a true helpmate to him in all Christian and temperance work. For many years she was Grand Superintendent of Juvenile Temples and always evinced a great interest in Sunday school and Juvenile Temperance work. After a happy married life of forty-two years she passed away in November 1916. They had nine sons and three daughters, all of whom are still alive and well. Mr. Cameron, who is seventy-nine years of age, recently underwent a serious operation, but has made a good recovery and now lives quietly and comfortably in Dunedin with his sister, Miss Janet Cameron. The family have always been active members of the Methodist Central Mission, and one of his sons was elected vice-president of the Methodist Church of New Zealand in 1925.

CARR, Edwin Caleb was manager of a large timber mill in the Northern Wairoa and also resided for a number of years in Auckland. He was an indefatigable worker among young people. In the sixties he was a leader in the Auckland Band of Hope, writing some of the recitations given by the young reciters. Until the day of his death on December 5, 1903 he was an ardent worker.

CARR, J. W., was for many years secretary of the Auckland Total Abstinence Society, which was formed in 1842. This Society was founded by eight pioneers. James McNair, Joseph Robinson, Caleb Robinson, John Probert. Joseph Newman. George Hunter, Joshua Robinson, and James William Carr. The society did much good work. In 1863 it initiated the formation of a Rechabite Tent. In 1862 it took an active part in the formation of Bands of Hope and assisted in introducing Good Templary into the district. In 1869 it successfully led a movement to oppose the proposal to open public-houses on Sundays. Mr. Carr was also financial secretary of the Auckland League and he was vice-president of the N.Z. Alliance from its formation.

CARSON, Hon. Gilbert, M.L.C. Born at sea in the year 1842, Gilbert Carson spent his early life in Auckland and in the New Zealand Herald office he learned his trade as a printer. Later he spent seven years on the staff of the Government Printing Department, Wellington. Acting on the advice of Sir William Fox he purchased the Wanganui Chronicle in 1874. He edited and controlled the paper for many years, and it has consistently supported the Prohibition movement. The citizens of Wanganui trusted him and he was elected to almost every public position, including Member of Parliament and Mayor on several occasions. Chairman of Harbour, Education and other Boards. He was also a member of the Legislative Council, a leading Baptist official, an ardent philanthropist and an able advocate of Prohibition.

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CAUGHLEY, J., former Director of Education in New Zealand, has given many years of service to the temperance movement, especially amongst young people.

CHATTERTON, Frederick William, B.D. (Durham) was born in England in 1860. Feeling the call to the mission field he came out to New Zealand in 1883 and was ordained deacon by the Bishop of Nelson in 1886 and priest in the following year. For fourteen years he had charge of the parish of All Saints, Nelson; then he was appointed principal of the Maori Theological College at Te Rau, and remained there for seventeen years. In 1919 he accepted the charge of the Rotorua Parochial District, which position he still holds. He took a deep interest in the temperance movement during his stay in Nelson in co-operation with the Revs. F. W. Isitt and R. S. Gray. On moving to Gisborne he took up the cause there. and for fourteen years was president of the No-License League. On removing to Rotorua he became president of the Prohibition League and still holds this office.

CHISHOLM, R. A., for a number of years was secretary of the Timaru League in which position he was most efficient. He received a public testimonial from his fellow-workers as an appreciation of his services.

CLEARY, The Right Reverend Bishop, D.D., O.B.E., was born in Ireland, 1859. He studied chiefly in Maynooth. Rome, and Paris. He was ordained priest in 1885. He was ordered to Australia for health reasons in 1888, where he served in the diocese of Ballarat from 1888 till the end of 1897. He was editor of The New Zealand Tablet from 1898 to 1910 and was appointed Bishop of Auckland 1910. He was military chaplain in England, Belgium. and France 1916–1917, and is the author of a number of books on history, theology, children's stories, &c.

CLEPHANE, R., of Christchurch, was one of the early vice-presidents of the Alliance, and life vice-president of the Canterbury Prohibition Council. These honours were conferred upon him because of his persistent and intelligent support of temperance principles for sixty years. He was one of the small band who formed the first total abstinence society in Canterbury. He died in 1896, aged seventy-eight years.

COCKER, James, was born at Calver, Derbyshire, in 1862. Early in life he was a follower of Sir Wilfred Lawson as a ‘Local Optionist’ and was a temperance worker in his native village. His student days were passed in Hartley College, Manchester. In 1890, as a Primitive Methodist minister, he was stationed at Ashburton, and soon became associated with the leaders of the newly-formed Prohibition movement. He has served on the Licensing Bench in Ashburton, Wanganui, Wellington, and Christchurch. As editor of the N.Z. Primitive Methodist, associate editor of the N.Z. Methodist Times, and editor of the Vanguard, he has used his pen to support the cause of page 214 Prohibition. He has also issued several volumes, including The Idylls of Blossom. The Date Boy of Baghdad, and Winning from Scratch. For many years he has been a member of the Alliance executive, and is a vice-president of the Alliance. He occupied leading positions in the Primitive Methodist Church, including those of Connexional Editor and President of Conference.

COLLINS, John (Mayor of Melrose, Wellington) assisted at the inauguration of the New Zealand Alliance, and for many years was a member of the executive.

COLLIS, Mr., of New Plymouth, was, from 1897 and onward, president of the Prohibition League and a leader of considerable influence.

COMRIE, Rev. W. J. The Rev. W. J. Comrie, F.I.A., N.Z., is a native of New Zealand, having been born at Auckland in 1860. Mr. Comrie became minister of Waiuku Presbyterian Church in 1889 and his subsequent charges were Kelso, Fairlie, and Hastings. In 1905 he was appointed to the position of general treasurer of the Presbyterian Church, and he continued to occupy it until December 31, 1928. During his ministry he has occupied most responsible positions, such as the moderatorship, a member of the Church Property Board, &c., &c. He has always been interested in education and has been a member of five different school committees and two education boards. As a youth he was a prominent Band of Hope worker, and during his ministry, whether in charges or in his office, he has been one of the outstanding helpers in our work. He was minister of Kelso during part of the struggle which eventually brought Prohibition to the Clutha electorate, and took a noble part in the fight. For many years he was a member of the executive of the New Zealand Alliance, and for a considerable period he was chairman of the N.Z. Alliance standing committee. Wise in counsel, sane in outlook, full of determination, withal of a kindly disposition, the cause owes much to him, and the New Zealand Alliance, at its annual meeting in March 1929, expressed its appreciation of his manifold services and exceeding worth by unanimously electing him as its president.

COUPLAND, James, lived at Port Albert and found pleasure in telling of the benefits enjoyed by the people because Prohibition prevailed in the district. He was a life-long abstainer, a Band of Hope worker, and in 1894 was elected a vice-president of the Alliance. Before coming to New Zealand in the early sixties he was a member of the United Kingdom Alliance. He died in November 1901, aged eighty-three.

COURT, J. W., is one of the prominent business men in Auckland City and has been closely associated with the Auckland Branch of the Alliance. A strong personality, he has, in the various responsible positions, made a worth while contribution to the movement. In addition to devoting his time and energy to the work, he has substantially sup- page 215 ported the movement financially. Mr. Court is a member of the Dominion Executive of the N.Z. Alliance, and president of the Auckland area N.Z.A.

COWIE, Bishop, of the Anglican Church, joined the New Zealand Alliance during the first year of its existence.

COX, William, of Timaru, was an energetic leader, and for some years occupied the position of president of the Prohibition League.

CRISP, Ben, one of the oldest and best-known residents of Nelson, died on September 2, 1901, at the great age of ninety-four. He claimed to be the oldest colonist in New Zealand, having left England in 1819. He had been a total abstainer since 1843, and he formed the first Band of Hope in Nelson. To the last day of his life he was intensely interested in the temperance cause.

CRUMP, Rev. J. From the days before he preached his first sermon in 1845 to the end of his long ministry, the Rev. John Crump, Methodist minister, waged a continual warfare against strong drink. He was a staunch champion in every town in which he lived.

CURRIE, Rev. S. W., a Presbyterian minister who lived in Balclutha for nine years before No-License was carried in the Clutha electorate and for many years after. He delighted in telling how great were its benefits.

DALLASTON, Rev. C., has always been a trusty friend of the cause.

DALTON, T. H., was born in Southbrook, Canterbury, in 1866, and since he was eighteen years of age, has been earnestly working for Prohibition. Only a few of his many activities can be mentioned, and these include fifteen years Grand Chief Templar, Presidency of the Dunedin South Temperance Reform Council, membership of the Mornington Borough Council and thirty-six years a Methodist local preacher. He is still actively engaged in philanthropic work.

DANIELL, C. E., was born at Malvern, Worcestershire, in 1856. He has resided in Masterton fifty years, and been closely identified with the progress of the town. As a builder and sawmiller he is the largest employer of labour in the district. He has occupied many public positions, including the Chairmanship of the Wellington Harbour Board. As a young peoples man he has worked to improve the educational facilities in the town. For forty-eight years he has been superintendent of the Methodist Sunday school, and he has been a loyal standard bearer in the cause of temperance. For about nine years he was a member of the Licensing Committee, and when No-License was carried in Masterton he was one of the leaders in the campaign.

DASH, George, J.P., four times Mayor of Waimate, has resided for fifty-two years in the town of which he is chief citizen. To enumerate the long list of public positions he has filled would be a great task, for there is scarcely page 216 an aspect of social service that has not had the benefit of his ripe judgement. He is well known in South Canterbury as a man of vision, inflexible purpose, and unswerving fidelity. His activities in temperance work have been numerous. For thirty-six years he was secretary of the Waimate Temperance and Prohibition forces. He wrote the popular Te Pono dialogues and has edited campaign columns and journals. He wrote and published the first three verses of the famous campaign song, ‘Strike out the Top Line,’ which was the battle cry of many campaigns. In 1908 he edited the official No-License Handbook. In 1912 the temperance party presented him with a silver service as a recognition of his work.

DAWSON, Rev. John. John Dawson was a Yorkshireman with a warm heart and a genial nature. Keighley was his native town. As a Primitive Methodist minister he landed in New Zealand in the year 1888. When stationed in Christchurch during the year 1894 he became a companion of the brave-hearted men and women who had unfurled the Prohibition flag in Sydenham a few years previously. In the daily press, on the platform, and in the streets, they were being bitterly opposed, but opposition and danger only increased John Dawson's enthusiasm for what he believed to be a righteous cause. Very soon he was generally accepted as a leader. His calm, deliberate manner had a steadying effect upon the hot-headed enthusiasts who soon learned to trust him. In 1897 he settled in Wellington, and for ten years was chairman of the New Zealand Alliance Executive. His sound judgement, tact, geniality, wide knowledge of the movement and burning enthusiasm for its development eminently qualified him for the position. He freely devoted much time and energy to the cause while still continuing his work as a minister. In 1909 he succeeded the Rev. F. W. Isitt as general secretary of the Alliance, a position he occupied until, on September 13, 1925, he ceased to work and live. John Dawson, by his dignified bearing, courtesy, charity, honourable and manly conduct, commanded the love and respect of the people, especially those who knew him best. Before the Methodist Union, he was elected president of Conference. He also occupied the position in the United Methodist Church. For almost thirty years his duties often led him to the House of Parliament to interview Premiers, Cabinet Ministers or Members. Often his position was a very difficult one, but he retained their respect. His parliamentary work was one of his best contributions to the Prohibition cause. He had great courage and when speaking on behalf of deputations to Premiers and Cabinet Ministers, he unflinchingly, but in a courteous manner, put forward the demands of his party. His comprehensive knowledge of the temperance movement and especially the Licensing Laws, specially qualified him as a speaker on such occasions. In council and conventions he had the courage to make progressive page 217 proposals which, though not at first popular, were usually adopted. He was trusted as a safe leader. His addresses at public meetings were full of facts and figures and statements which were never challenged, even by his opponents. He often made his best speeches when opposed. While firmly believing that Prohibition was the only real cure for the evils wrought by the liquor traffic, he gladly worked for minor reforms, such as six o'clock closing. His sanguine and hopeful disposition often dispelled the fears of others and inspired them with hope. He was a likeable man and had a great capacity for friendship, being gladly welcomed into the homes of the workers in the Dominion where the bonds of loyalty to him as a leader were increased. Twice in America and once in Switzerland he ably represented the Dominion at the World's Congresses, dealing with alcohol, and his visits to Australia and Fiji inspired the workers in those lands. John Dawson was a rock man, whose work did much to build up the Prohibition movement in New Zealand.—J. Cocker.

DE LAMARE, F. A., B.A., LL.B., barrister and solicitor, Hamilton., b. 1877; ed. Christchurch B.H.S. and Victoria University College. Member University Senate, 1920– 1926. Elected Graduates Rep. University Council, 1927. Member Hamilton High School Board of Governors. Ex-member Hamilton Borough Council. Athletics—School and University champion. Rep. N.Z. University and Wellington Prov. Football —South Auckland Cricket. Ex-chairman Hamilton Rugby Union and South Auckland Lawn Tennis Association. Author of pamphlets, Our Educational System, The Problem of Industry. Co-partnership Re-defined, &c. Co-author this volume. Member Dominion Executive N.Z. Alliance. Lifelong abstainer. As schoolboy drove voters to poll in a borrowed spring-cart at historic Sydenham campaign, 1890. Severely wounded, Passchendaele, 1917.

DE LAUTOUR, Dr., of Tapanui, was an enthusiastic supporter of No-License, and by voice and pen bore testimony to its success in Clutha electorate. He also wrote papers on ‘Alcohol and the Human System.’

DE LAUTOUR, A. C., of Gisborne, was the first president of the Waiapu Prohibition League which was formed in 1894 and the Rev. T. N. Griffin was the first vice-president. Mr. De Lautour was a loyal standard bearer during many years following.

DELLOW, Rev. John, was a Methodist minister. He had a fine voice and was a popular solo singer at open-air temperance meetings. He was a member of the Canterbury Prohibition Council Executive and was a well-known speaker in Prohibition campaigns. He died November 27, 1897.

DENTON, R. G. ‘Always at it’ fitly describes Robert G. Denton's work for Prohibition. He was born in Wellington sixty-five years ago, but as a young man page 218 he spent four years in England, and from what he saw there of the liquor traffic he felt impressed that it was the Empire's greatest menace. In 1892 he inserted a signed advertisement in the Wellington newspaper, calling a meeting to form a Prohibition League, and eighty citizens attended Friends advised him that it would pay him not to be too prominent in the movement, as he might be boycotted in his new business. He smiled and stuck to his guns. As a collector of funds, compiler and writer of juvenile literature, organizing distributors and scrutineers, Band of Hope conductor, president of the Wellington Prohibition League, over twenty years a member of the Alliance Executive, he has done much valuable detail work, which has contributed to the general progress.

DEVEREAUX, W. D., of Dunsandel, for a long time a leader in Canterbury Prohibition.

DEWDNEY, Rev. A., a Baptist minister and editor of the N.Z. Baptist, for a number of years was an able and energetic Prohibition leader. He spent his last years in America, where he died.

DICK, The Honourable Thomas. As a temperance reformer in 1881, he was instrumental in the passing through the House of Representatives of an Act which formed the basis of the advanced licensing legislation welcomed by the Alliance. He was a man of sterling character and practical sagacity, who retained to the last his active sympathy with the No-License movement. He died in the year 1900.

DIXON, Charles, of Ashburton. was one of the large army of semi-obscure workers who have done much to further the reform. His pen was his sword and right nobly did he serve the cause.

DIXON, Edwin, of Hawera, has been Mayor of the town for eight years, president of the Chamber of Commerce for six years, seventeen years a member of Education Boards, and has represented the electorate in parliament. He has been vice-president of the New Zealand Methodist Conference, twenty-six years superintendent of the Sunday school, and many years a local preacher. He has been a faithful, energetic, temperance torch bearer. For fifteen years he has been a member of the Licensing Bench, is chairman of the Taranaki Prohibition Area Council and is a vice-president of the Alliance.

DOBBS, W., has for many years been one of the leading temperance workers in Christchurch, and is well known in League meetings and annual conventions. He is a man of independent thought and original methods. The Methodist Church, of which he is an official, honoured him by electing him vice-president of Conference. When T. E. Taylor was first elected to parliament, Mr. Dobbs was chairman of his central committee, and as long as the great leader lived he continued to be his loyal lieutenant. For a number of years he has rendered excellent service as an Alliance organizer.

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DONALDSON, C. E., was for some years a zealous secretary of the Timaru Prohibition League.

DOULL, Rev. A., M.A., was a leader of the cause. Reliable and determined, he calmly stood to his principles and was an inspirer of others. He prepared the No-License Handbook of 1914.

DRAKE, Rev. E., has been a member of Alliance Executive. Convention reporter, platform speaker, and diligent worker in the Prohibition cause.

EDIE, John, of Lawrence, took a keen interest in public affairs. He occupied many public positions, including that of Member of Parliament. He was a staunch prohibitionist.

EASTHOPE, W. M., represented Masterton at the formation of the N.Z. Alliance.

EDMOND, Charles R. Born in Melborne, Australia, 1890; Y.M.C.A. secretary during the war, seeing service in France and Germany, being supervising secretary in charge of the whole activities of the N.Z. Y.M.C.A. in France. On returning to New Zealand in 1919 appointed to take charge of military and industrial work for the Y.M.C.A.; loaned to the N.Z. Alliance in 1922, organized the Prohibition campaign in Auckland; subsequently appointed Dominion organizer of the Alliance in October 1923, and on the death of the general secretary, the late Rev. John Dawson, was appointed general secretary in 1926, and resigned in 1929.

ELL, H. G., for many years represented Christchurch in parliament, and both in the House and on the public platform has been an ardent supporter of Prohibition.

ELLIOTT, Rev. James Kennedy, D.D., was born in Ireland in 1845, and educated in Belfast. He came to New Zealand in 1884, and from 1888 until his death in May 1929 he was minister of Kent Terrace Presbyterian Church, Wellington, although for some years relieved from active service. His keen insight, sound common sense, ready wit and fluent speech, and above all his genuine goodness and kindness of heart, made him a friend and brother beloved. He was for many years a member of the Hospital and Charitable Aid Board, and of the executive of the N.Z. Alliance. A lifelong abstainer and an advocate of total abstinence, he was a valued supporter of the N.Z. Alliance

ELLIOTT, Rev. W. J., an ex-president of the Methodist Church, has rendered service as a member of the Alliance executive, of which he was vice-chairman, and as a platform speaker. Having lived in Clutha, he was able to speak from experience of the value of No-License. His later residence in Ashburton increased his faith in the reform.

ENTRICAN, A. J., Auckland, as a public man has stood for every righteous cause. In 1898 he did excellent work in the City Council in connexion with the cleaning of the roll, and has advocated the election of only men of sterling character, &c. to page 220 public positions, especially as Members of Parliament.

ERWIN, Rev. Dr. (Christchurch), has stood for Prohibition principles. A man of strong personality, his influence has been a great help during his long ministry in the City of the Plains.

EVANS, Miss Sarah, was a Methodist local preacher and a popular open-air speaker. By her consecration, sacrifice, and service she did much to secure the final victory of No-License in Ohinemuri. Riding on horseback along a bush-track over the ranges and carrying literature one dark night her horse slipped and fell upon her, breaking her leg, and she lay for hours before discovered. She was a heroine.

EVANS, R., of Rangiora, was president of the Central Council of the Kaiapoi electorate, Canterbury Prohibition Council, and a life-long sturdy champion of Prohibition principles.

EVANS, Rev. W. A. (Wellington), a Congregational minister who did much temperance work; a clear, logical thinker.

FAIRCLOUGH, Rev. Paul W., had brilliant gifts, which he used in the service of humanity. As an astronomer he dwelt among the stars, as a lover of fellow men he fought the social evils of his day. As connexional editor of the Methodist Church and contributor to the daily press, he wrote articles in support of Prohibition which were logical, instructive, and inspiring, and were widely circulated. In his platform and pulpit utterances, which were the product of a keen intellect and a warm heart, he often struck heavy blows at the liquor traffic. This stalwart died after an operation in 1917, aged sixty-five.

FALKNER, Louis E., has for many years been a worker in the temperance cause, but it has been as an official and leader of the Auckland Band of Hope Union that he has done his best work. He has rendered unique service as conductor of the annual Band of Hope concerts. His musical taste, skill, and sincere love for the children have qualified him to be the successful leader of the popular annual musical gatherings which have crowded the Auckland Town Hall. He has been a leader of the Auckland Area Council.

FATHERS, T., was born in New Plymouth in 1857. He has been a Rechabite fifty-two years, district secretary twenty years (a position he still occupies), editor of the N.Z. Rechabite for ten years, member of the Alliance executive and a subscriber to the Alliance funds since 1886.

FEE, Rev. Thomas, is a Methodist minister who, during a number of campaigns, has rendered much effective service. Whilst president of the Methodist Church, he devoted considerable time to advancing the Prohibition cause. He is a very vigorous platform speaker and quick at repartee. He excels in delivering open-air addresses. He has been president of Canterbury Prohibition Council and other temperance associations.

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FEIST, F. (Wellington). A reliable worker for many years and has rendered valuable service as hon. treasurer of the N.Z. Alliance.

FERRIMAN, F. Z. D. (Ashburton) is an active Anglican layman, and a well-known business man. A man of independent thought, he has occupied a number of public positions, including a seat at the Council table and that of deputy mayor. The returned soldiers have had in him a true friend and a strenuous supporter. With energy and determination he has advocated the cause of temperance and most generously supported it.

FIELD, Henry, is a Yorkshireman, being born in Wakefield in 1854, and came to New Zealand when twenty-five years old. For some years he was an active temperance worker in the City of Auckland, before he became general secretary of the Alliance in 1886. For several years he devoted part of his time to the work while attending to his business. Later he became full time secretary. In 1894 the headquarters of the Alliance were transferred from Auckland to Wellington, and Mr. Field continued his work as secretary. In 1897 he resigned, having occupied the position of general secretary for nearly eleven years. Mr. Field's association with the Alliance dates back to its origin and he was closely associated with its founders. Among the early workers he met, in Nelson, were Mr. J. S. Bond and Mr. W. Lock: in Christchurch, Mr. R. Clephane and Mr. William Gavin; in Wellington, Hon. F. H. Fraser and Rev. W. A. Evans: in Taranaki Messrs. James Bellringer, R. C. Hughes, and Mrs. Mary Collis; in Auckland, Messrs. John Buchanan, W. R. Neal, John Weymouth, J. Newman, W. J. Speight, and D. Goldie. His work included the securing of pledges from parliamentary candidates to give the people power at the ballot box to end the liquor traffic. During the Session of Parliament in 1893, when the Direct Veto Bill was passed, he spent much time in Wellington with the Rev. E. Walker, working in the interest of temperance legislation. Mr. Field made a valuable contribution in the early days of the No-License movement.—J. Cocker.

FIELD, Thomas, of Nelson, was elected a vice-president of the N.Z. Alliance on its foundation in the year 1886. He generously contributed to its funds and supported its principles.

FINDLAY, Rev. J. B., was convener of the Presbyterian Assembly's Temperance Committee. In 1898 he was appointed Alliance lecturer and organizing agent. The Prohibitionist, in reporting his appointment, said, ‘He is a pleasing speaker, thoroughly informed in the Prohibition question, and an ardent advocate of the great reform. It needs a loud “call” to induce a man to wander from his home eleven months out of twelve when congenial church work lies to hand.’ During later years he has been a member of the Alliance executive.

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FLEMING, John. ‘Thy gentleness has made me great, sang the Psalmist, and there he recorded the hall mark of a true gentleman. Of that kind is John Fleming, who has lived in the Auckland province for about fifty years, and in the Queen City itself for most of that time. For many years he was associated with the Auckland Star. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church. His prayer has ever been, ‘Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth.’ He has worked as he has prayed, and much of his best work has been for Prohibition. God has given him increase of goods which he has used with a fine sense of stewardship.

FLE8HER, J. A., O.B.E., has been Mayor of Christchurch, his native city, and has had a seat upon many public bodies, including the Harbour Board, Tramway Board, &c. He has freely used his abilities for the public good, and as a barrister has fought the battles of No-License in the courts. As president of the Canterbury No-License Council and in other positions, he has displayed powers of leadership. He has also been vice-president of the Methodist Church.

FLIGHT, Josiah, was resident magistrate at New Plymouth for upwards of thirty years, and was a zealous temperance advocate. He induced many children and adults to sign the pledge, and amongst them were some who afterwards became well-known temperance workers, such as Mr. Arthur Hoby, Mr. R. C. Hughes and Miss Flight. He was one of the early day giants from 1856 onwards.

FORBES, J. A., of Gore, was the able and energetic secretary of the Gore Gospel Temperance Society in 1892 and for eleven years onward. He was president of the Gore Band of Hope Union and a writer of helpful papers for conventions. In 1903 the temperance people presented him with an illuminated address as an appreciation of his twenty years temperance work in the district.

FOW, John R., J.P., early became a worker in a Juvenile Templar Lodge and a Band of Hope member. He is a life abstainer and a non-smoker; wherever he has lived he has earnestly supported the cause of temperance. For thirty-six years he has been a Methodist local preacher and has filled many official positions in the Church. For ten years he has sat upon the Hamilton Licensing Bench. For twenty years he has been a member of the Hamilton Borough Council and has been elected mayor on eight occasions. He is president of the South Auckland Area Prohibition Council and a member of the N.Z. Alliance executive.

FOWLDS, Hon. Sir Geo., K.B., O.B.E., The Honourable Sir George Fowlds, K.B., O.B.E. was International Rotary's first special commissioner to New Zealand. He introduced the Rotary movement to this land. Rotary's motto is ‘Service before Self,’ but long before Rotary was known here George Fowlds page 223 had learned the vital principle of service, and his life had been one long exposition of it. His father, Matthew Fowlds, was accidentally killed at the age of 101. He was a hand-loom weaver and the loom on which he worked when he was over 100 years is preserved in the Auckland Museum. Sir George was born in 1860 at Fenwick, Ayrshire, where he was educated, and where his early working days were spent. He migrated thence to South Africa, where he added to his store of experience. The year 1885 found him in New Zealand. He followed various occupations until 1886 when he founded the business in Auckland which bears his name. But it is in connexion with religion, education, politics, and social reform that he is best known, for to him business has been but a means to an end. He is a member of the Congregational Church and a former president of the Congregational Union; he is a trustee of the Jubilee Institute of the Blind and has been a constant strength to the Y.M.C.A. He is a Christian gentleman in the best sense of the word: broad-minded, sympathetic, generous, ever ready to give a helping hand either to a needy brother or to a needy cause. Sir George has been a keen student of economics and a ‘single taxer.’ He became influential in the legislature of our country; he served in three parliaments and became a minister in the Ward Liberal administration. He was associated with the Eden League when No-License was carried there. He was conspicuous in the Efficiency League of 1919: he has been vice-president of the New Zealand Alliance and a member of its Area and Dominion executives: he helped splendidly in the liquidation of the Alliance's heavy debt which followed the poll in 1922, and in many other ways he has, for over a generation, been a wise and strong leader in temperance reform. Sir George Fowlds has long been recognized as one of Auckland's foremost public men. His most conspicuous public service has been in the interests of education. He became minister for Education, and during his regime at the Education Office the Teachers' Superannuation Scheme was instituted. He is president of the Auckland University Council. He was active in promoting the Massey Agricultural College at Palmerston North and became chairman of its first governing body. The Hon. Sir George Fowlds was made ‘O.B.E.’ for war service in connexion with the Red Cross Order and in 1928 the King bestowed the further honour of knighthood.—H. E. Pacey.

FOX, Sir William. Sir William Fox was one of the best known of Wellington's early settlers. He was born in England in 1812, and took his Master of Arts degree at Wadham College, Oxford. He also studied law, and was admitted to the Society of the Inner Temple, London, in the year 1842. He found time before leaving for New Zealand to write a book on the Law of Costs, and also a pamphlet in favour of the emigration to New Zealand. He averred, in this page 224 pamphlet, that many of the best families in England were leaving for New Zealand, and stressed the fact that emigrants should be of the best type obtainable. He arrived in New Zealand in 1843 and was appointed resident agent at Nelson for the New Zealand Company in the same year. On the death of Col. Wakefield in the year 1848 he became principal agent for the Company and controlled all its affairs in the southern districts of the colony. He showed such wisdom and tact in this position that he was elected a member of the first parliament convened in New Zealand. Together with Dr. Isaac Earl Featherston and the Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, he formed a triumvirate that ruled Wellington in the early days, and was popularly known as ‘one of the three F's.’ He was a staunch Churchman, being a member of the Anglican faith, and together with Sir William Fitzherbert, took a prominent part in the foundation of an educational system for the Wellington province. He was fearless in the execution of his duties, and in the face of severe opposition from several churches he established education on a secular basis. From his earliest days he was a strong supporter of Prohibition, a policy which he never ceased to advocate until the date of his death. In those early days, the consumption of alcohol was regarded as almost a social necessity, and it was said of Fox when he was first appointed Premier, that he would then have to depart from his principles of abstinence owing to the many social entertainments that it would be his duty as Premier to preside over. What a mistaken estimate of his characten some people had formed was soon shown, as he never at any time ceased to advocate and carry out his opinions in that respect. As a speaker, he was fluent and vigorous, and was considered to be one of the best in Parliament. He was heard on many occasions on public platforms on the liquor question and even in his later days when living in retirement at Auckland he never ceased to take an active interest in the campaign for the abolition of strong drink. Politically, morally and socially he bore an unblemished reputation and he was ever ready to assist his fellow man in any way that he was able. He was Premier no less than four times, and after relinquishing parliamentary duties, was appointed commissioner to inquire into Native Land Titles and to settle questions relative to the confiscation of Maori lands on the west coast, and in this capacity he gave great satisfaction to Pakeha and Maori alike. He died at Auckland at the ripe old age of eighty-one, practically all the energies of his later years being given to the temperance movement.—Sir R. Stout.

FRASER, Hon. F. H., M.L.C., had a long and honourable career and was one of the foremost men in all temperance matters. His appointment to the Legislative Council was due largely to the fact that he was a recognized temperance leader. For thirty-eight years he was secretary of the N.Z. Central District of the Rechabite Order.
Mrs. Johnson Wright,Many years leading worker of Wellington W.C.T.U

Mrs. Johnson Wright,
Many years leading worker of Wellington W.C.T.U

Miss Roberts,Many years organizer for W.C.T.U. and N.Z. Alliance

Miss Roberts,
Many years organizer for W.C.T.U. and N.Z. Alliance

Mrs. A. E. Herbert, J.P.,Prominent social and prohibition worker, Christchurch

Mrs. A. E. Herbert, J.P.,
Prominent social and prohibition worker, Christchurch

Rev. W. Ready,Many years a vigorous public speaker for prohibition

Rev. W. Ready,
Many years a vigorous public speaker for prohibition

Ven. Archdeacon F. W. Chatterton,Seventeen years Principal of Maori Theological College: fourteen years President Gisborne No-License League

Ven. Archdeacon F. W. Chatterton,
Seventeen years Principal of Maori Theological College: fourteen years President Gisborne No-License League

Ven. Archdeacon J. D. Russell,Staunch advocate of No-License, residing in No-License town of Oamaru

Ven. Archdeacon J. D. Russell,
Staunch advocate of No-License, residing in No-License town of Oamaru

Most Rev.Archbishop C. Julius, D.D.First Primate of New Zealand; staunch prohibition supporter

Most Rev.
Archbishop C. Julius, D.D.
First Primate of New Zealand; staunch prohibition supporter

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FRENCH, Robert. What memories gather round the name of Robert French as a constant, persistent, and loyal advocate of Prohibition. In 1863 a meeting of total abstainers held in Auckland decided to start a branch of the Rechabite Friendly Society in New Zealand. The chairman of that meeting was Mr. J. M. French, who died February 9, 1899. His son Robert in early life became a temperance worker, devoting much of his energies to making the Auckland Band of Hope Union an educative power. Many also were the adults he persuaded to sign the total abstinence pledge. He was an enthusiastic prohibitionist and excelled as a defender in the columns of the newspapers of the movement to close the hotel bars. Because of his faithfulness to his convictions, he often suffered in his business, but he was willing to pay the price. He had a firm faith that God would, in His own time, give the victory. While, in 1914, he was addressing a series of temperance meetings in the King Country, he caught a cold which ended fatally. In Point Erin Park, Auckland, a marble drinking fountain has been erected to his memory, a fitting tribute to a noble and heroic pioneer and of an early president of the Auckland Prohibition League.

FROGGATT, George, lived in Invercargill all the years he was in the Dominion. For four years he was mayor of the town and was a member of the Education Board, High School Board, &c. for many years. He always stood by his temperance principles and was chairman of the Southland Prohibition Council.

FULTON, James, M.L.C., of Otago. For many years he had a seat in parliament, and with zeal and energy supported any proposal which had for its object the promotion of sobriety. He was a man of considerable influence in public life.

GAIN, D., of Dunedin, was an enthusiastic Band of Hope worker, besides rendering much service to the No-License movement.

GARLAND, Rev. C. H., was an enthusiastic Prohibitionist. He rendered excellent service as president of the Auckland League. In the pulpit, on the platform, as a member of deputations, or with his pen, he was a strong advocate of the cause.

GARLICK, J. T. (Auckland), was an early temperance worker and an ardent advocate of Women's Franchise.

GILLIES, Rev. William, was an able Presbyterian minister who was greatly respected, not only in his own church, but by the general public. He was a valued worker, and referring to him at the time of his death, it was said, ‘He was one of the oldest and ablest workers in our ranks, wise in counsel and fearless in fight throughout his long and successful ministry at Timaru. In scorn of consequences he rendered yeoman service.’ He was one of the giants of his day and was unanimously elected president of the Alliance.

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GITTOS, Rev. Wm., was a Methodist minister who had a long and remarkable career as a missionary among the Maoris. He thoroughly understood the native mind, language and customs. Patriarchal in appearance and respected by the Maoris as a father, he wielded a great in-
. Often he prevented bloodshed and established the foundations of peace. Believing strong drink to be one of the greatest enemies from which the Maori had to be protected he fought it strenuously, and many were the methods of his warfare. To tell of them in detail and of his great work would require a book to be written.

GLOVER, T. W., was the first Alliance agent in New Zealand. He came out from England, his salary being guaranteed in advance by a number of friends. He assisted in organizing the meeting at which the New Zealand Alliance was formed, and took a leading part in the proceedings. He spent some years travelling round the colony, extending the influence of the Alliance. As the result of his work, the new organization made considerable progress. Possessing a strong body, a memory well stored with temperance truths, a good speaker, somewhat blunt and rugged in manner, but undaunted by difficulties or opposition, he was well qualified to do pioneer work. He died in Portland, Oregon, March 7, 1905.

GOLDIE, David, came from Tasmania and settled in Auckland in the year 1862. For more than sixty years he occupied a prominent position in the Church, municipal and political life of the city. He was member of the Provincial Council, Member of Parliament, Mayor of the City, and member of many public bodies. For sixty-four years he was associated with the Alexandra Street Primitive Methodist Church, being sixty years a local preacher, and for more than fifty years superintendent of the Sunday school. He was elected president of the Primitive Methodist Dominion Conference. He was a man of independent thought, strong determination, great courage, almost boundless energy, and constantly at work. Nobly did he fight the liquor traffic. As a member of the Licensing Committee, he assisted in closing ten hotel bars. For many years he was a leader of the Auckland Band of Hope Union.

GOLDSMITH, Samuel William, arrived in Waimate in 1862, and the following year commenced business as a storekeeper in partnership with John and George Manchester. These three men commenced the Methodist Church in the town and there are memorial windows to their memory in the church. Mr. Goldsmith was a member of the first Borough Council and was third Mayor of the town. He was a constant supporter and advocate of every branch of temperance work.

GOODACRE, H., of New Plymouth, was a leader in the early fighting days and he frequently read papers and gave addresses at the annual meetings. Loyally he served the cause in his day.

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GOW, Hon. J. B., born in Scotland 1862, son of a Presbyterian minister. Mr. Gow came to New Zealand early and was educated in Otago. He has been intimately connected with the dairying industry, particularly in the Bay of Plenty; is a director of the National Dairy Association; was for twenty years chairman of the Opotiki Council; has been for many years on the executive of the N.Z. Alliance; is an elder of the Presbyterian Church, and was appointed a member of the Legislative Council 1918.

GRAHAM, Frank, was one of the foundation members of the Roslyn and Kaikorai Temperance Union in 1892, and was also a popular platform advocate of prohibition and rendered help in the councils of the party.

GRAHAM, George Henry, was the father of temperance work in Waimate. He took a leading part in the first temperance meeting which was held in the town at Christmas 1868. He wrote a book of prose and verse which contains an account of that first meeting. He gave addresses and recited poems at temperance meetings, in which he was a great help. For sixty years Band of Hope and temperance meetings have been continued in the district. In 1906 a plan was printed for holding meetings during the season. On it there were thirteen places and twenty-two leaders and speakers. On July 6, 1904, the Waimate branch of the Women's Christian Temperance Union was formed. Waimate has produced some stalwart temperance workers.

GREENWOOD, J., was treasurer and a fighting arm of the Nelson League.

GRINSTEAD, H. A pastor of the Associated Churches of Christ, Mr. Grinstead was for many years on the field staff of the N.Z. Alliance and was well-known as organizer and speaker.

GROCOTT, H., was the energetic secretary of the Oamaru No-License Association, and ably used his pen for the cause.

GRANT, George. Mr. George Grant was the popular headmaster of the College Street School, Palmerston North, from 1892 to 1901. He had an intense nature and was a gifted speaker. His enthusiasm on behalf of the Prohibition movement amounted to a passion. He rendered valuable service in the pulpit, on the platform, in the press and council meetings. He was a brave leader who moved others to action. Largely as the result of his organizing powers, the Palmerston North convention was formed, which was for many years one of the most influential gatherings in the Dominion. It was attended by delegates from an area which extended from Wellington to New Plymouth, Hawke's Bay and Wairarapa. The aggressive Palmerston North League was formed in 1893 with Mr. G. Grant in the chair. Mr. Matthew Henry, and Mr. G. H. Bennett were vice-presidents, Mr. Jas. Laurenson, secretary, Mr. Jas. Grace, treasurer. A year later Mr. Jas. Stubbs was elected chairman, a position he occupied for many years. Among those page 228 present were E. Dixon, L. Laurenson, E. Poole, J. Hepworth, E. Groves, Rev. F. Quintrell and Mrs. Barrett. Very soon 120 persons were enrolled as members and the League distributed 100 copies of The Prohibitionist. It also formed a council which organized the Annual Provincial Convention. This popular and largely-attended annual gathering was first held on Queen Victoria's birthday, May 24, 1895, when there were ninety-six delegates present and Mr. Gilbert Carson presided. In later years the attendance increased to 300 persons. Mr. George Grant died October 11, 1901, after spending himself to exhaustion in doing good.—J. Cocker.

GRAY, C. M., was mayor of Christchurch in 1891 and 1904–06. During his terms of office he made a brave stand for his temperance principles. In 1905 he was elected M.H.R. for Christchurch North. For many years he rendered valuable service by preparing the figures in connexion with the N.Z. Drink Bill.

GRAY, Rev. R. S. Randolph St. Cyr Gray was, by birth, a Victorian, hailing from Geelong. He migrated to New Zealand when the Melbourne boom burst, in the early nineties of last century. He had been manager of a branch of one of the banks that collapsed in that panic. He entered into the life of the Dominion in his early manhood. He was by nature one of those magnetic persons who bind men to them with ropes of steel. His gaiety, his charm, his vision, his oratorical gift, his power of repartee, his quick perception, marked him out for prominence. He elected to give his life to the ministry of the Baptist Church. He rose very quickly to prominence in her early councils. He attained to presidency of the Union at an unusually early age. His pastorates were all notable. He was finally the official executive head of the denomination. His devotion to Prohibition was the second passion of his life. He had been prominent on the platform, and at the council table of the Alliance for many years, when the Efficiency Campaign was launched in the midst of the war. The group of business men who were behind that memorable effort insisted that R. S. Gray was the man they needed to direct their effort. His church released him, and as every one knows, the banner was carried to the very edge of victory. The effort was, however, too great for his strength, and his friends noticed the great decline of vigour. The furlough in Europe failed to restore him, and he passed suddenly away in December 1922.—J. J. North.

HADDON, Rev. Robert Tahupotlkl, is of distinguished Maori lineage, and is stated to be a direct descendant of Turi, who navigated the Aotea canoe to New Zealand from the Islands of the Sea, his mother, a chieftainness, being the twenty-second descendant from the famous navigator. His father, Charles Haddon, was a Canadian who had Scottish parents. During his long ministry among his people Robert Tahupotiki Haddon has done much for their welfare. Realizing that strong page 229 drink was their greatest menace, he has used all his powers in protecting them from it. At the request of the N.Z. Alliance he has for some years been set free by the Methodist Church to devote much of his time to educating the Maoris on the temperance question. Being a gifted speaker and having a forceful personality, he has great influence with his people.

HALL, Sir John, was born in Hull, Yorkshire, in 1824, and was educated in England, Germany, Switzerland, and Paris. He came to New Zealand in 1852, and in 1856 was appointed Resident Magistrate in Lyttelton and later in Christchurch. He first entered the House of Representatives in 1855, and was a member of the fourth, fifth, seventh, eighth, tenth, and eleventh Parliaments up to November 1893, and was twice a member of the Legislative Council. He occupied many ministerial positions and was Premier from 1879 to 1882. He earnestly advocated Women's Franchise and three years' Parliament, and was a liberal conservative. He was a competent and careful administrator, keen debater; a man of high character and kindly nature who made friends and kept them; a humanitarian and supporter of the temperance cause.

HALL, R. W., ex-President United Temperance Reform Council, Dunedin, fifteen years resident in St. Kilda, of which he was three times elected Mayor, member of Hospital Board, president Life Saving Club, and Boy Scouts and connected with numerous other public and sports bodies, he was one who lived a full life devoted to the public welfare. Died suddenly in the street from heart failure, October 1929.

HALLIWELL, H. Solicitor, Hawera, has, for more than a quarter of a century, loyally supported Prohibition in the press, public meetings, or by private advocacy. For many years he was President of the Prohibition League.

HAMMOND, Rev. T. G., was a Methodist minister, who, for almost half a century, worked among the Maoris. He was a general favourite with the native race. He had a knowledge of Maori lore, etiquette, legends, songs, history, and customs, and was tactful and gracious in his methods. His book, The Story of Aotea, and other writings show how full and accurate was his knowledge. How bravely he fought to defend the Maoris from the liquor traffic! How we admired him ! As a member of deputations he stood before Premier and Cabinet Ministers, and pleaded that the native should be saved from the evils of strong drink. Died 1926.

HANAN, Hon. J. A., M.L.C., was born in Invercargill in 1868 and was admitted as a solicitor in 1889. In 1897 he became mayor of his native town. In 1899 was elected M.H.R., and represented Invercargill in parliament for twenty-five years. Later he was appointed to the Legislative Council. He has held the portfolios of Minister of Education page 230 (twice), Justice, and was Attorney General. He has been a steadfast prohibitionist both in the House and country.

HARDING, A., followed in the footsteps of his father and has been a willing, painstaking, and reliable supporter of No-License, both in and out of parliament.

HARDING, Edwin, of Kaipara, was the son of Mr. John Harding. For half a century he lived north of Auckland, and was a well-known and highly respected public man and lifelong supporter of Prohibition. He died in 1929, aged sixty-five years.

HARDING, John, represented Hawke's Bay at the meeting held in Wellington on March 1, 1886, to found the New Zealand Alliance. He stated that in September 1885 he had, by circular, called a preliminary meeting to form a central organization, but this was a more representative gathering. That day was the forty-fourth anniversary of his arrival in Wellington. He was elected one of the first vice-presidents of the newly-formed Alliance. He was a man of strong personality and moved by a progressive spirit. Opposition or difficulties did not daunt him, but rather increased his determination to achieve his object. He attended the first temperance meeting held in Wellington. This was in the year 1842. He guaranteed in advance a considerable sum towards the salary of Mr. T. W. Glover, the first Alliance agent.

HARKNESS, J. G., has occupied many prominent positions, including that of member of parliament from 1890 to 1893. He has always been a loyal prohibitionist, and is a vice-president of the N.Z. Alliance.

HARRIS, A., M.P., early joined the temperance cause and during his career as a public man has always supported the Prohibition movement.

HARRISON, J., of Whangarei, was for many years well known as a loyal, determined advocate of temperance. Both locally and in the representative gatherings, he was recognized as a leader. Died 1928, aged eighty-six years.

HARRY, Rev. Frederick Edward, born in Swindon, England, in 1864. Trained for the Baptist ministry at Rawson Theological College, Yorkshire, and ordained when only twenty-two years of age. After a brief charge in England came to Australia about forty years ago and has laboured in city pastorates in Melbourne, Sydney, Ballarat, and Perth (W.A.). Been an ardent temperance and social reform worker from his youth up. Ex-president of the West Australian Alliance and also of the Anti-Liquor League. Came to Wellington, N.Z., in 1922, and speedily took an important part in the Prohibition Campaign. For six years he has been president of the Wellington area and a member of the Standing Committee of the Alliance.

HARTNELL, G. T., of Port Arthur, was one of the early workers in that Prohibition settlement.

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HASSALL, A. D., of Christchurch, joined the Good Templars and the Sons of Temperance more than fifty years ago. Since then he has worked in Band of Hope, temperance meetings and councils. He is a Rechabite and is editor of the New Zealand Rechabite. For some years he had a seat on the Kaiapoi Licensing Bench.

HAWKINS, Capt. W. H., is well known in the Prohibition movement. An active worker for over forty years, he, at a critical time in its history, became member of parliament for Pahiatua and rendered valuable help to the cause. For some time he was manager of the Pahiatua Herald. During the war he served as captain of the Wellington Regiment. For a considerable time he has been one of the popular lecturers and ‘field’ men of the N.Z. Alliance.

HAZELDEN, Canon, is indeed a member of ‘The Old Brigade.’ For more than fifty years he has been a clergyman in the Auckland diocese, and was personally associated with the great Bishop Selwyn. He has occupied many important positions in his Church, and is known as the ‘father of the diocese.’ His memory is an encyclopaedia of useful information, and he has a genial disposition. His life has been a constant crusade against strong drink. About fifty years ago he was president of Mount Albert Total Abstinence Society, and later occupied the same position in the Avondale Society. For many years he has been an active member of the Church of England Temperance Society, also vice-president of the Auckland Prohibition League. As president of the Onehunga League he has rendered excellent service. As a temperance speaker he is instructive, entertaining and popular.

HELYER, W. J., is a foundation member and a builder of the Prohibition party. He joined the New Zealand Alliance at its commencement and was one of the founders of the Wellington Prohibition League. For many years he has been on the Alliance executive and a member of almost all the committees in connexion with the work at headquarters. He has been a regular attendant at business and public meetings and has seemed inseparably connected with the Prohibition movement in Wellington. He is a ‘Mr. Steadfast’ who can be relied upon to do his duty and is always there when he is wanted.

HERBERT, Annie E., J.P., of Christchurch, was a member of the City Council, and the North Canterbury Hospital Board, founder of the Social Welfare Guild, and associate to the magistrate in the Children's Court. She was an ardent Prohibitionist and a successful organizer of the temperance forces in the Avon electorate, where majorities were recorded for Prohibition. Her home was the committee room during a number of campaigns. By her personality she attracted numbers of workers to herself. In 1929 she left earth's battlefield for the bliss of the better land.

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HILL, C. G., of Auckland, will long be remembered for his work among young people. He was president of the Auckland Band of Hope Union.

HOBBS, Richard, of Auckland, was well known as an ardent temperance worker. He was a strong platform advocate of the Women's Franchise.

HOBY, Arthur, of Wellington, is well known as a loyal Baptist layman, a zealous advocate of temperance, and for many years was a helpful member of the N.Z. Alliance executive.

HOLDAWAY, H. O., was identified with the temperance movement in Nelson from its early days. He was deeply devoted to the work among the young people. His genial and kindly nature made him popular among them.

HOLLAND, Henry, M.P. Henry Holland was born in Yorkshire in 1859 and came to New Zealand when a boy. He has occupied many public positions. For a number of years he was Mayor of Christchurch and at the present time represents the city in parliament. He has been a Methodist local preacher for forty-six years and has occupied the chair of vice-president of Conference. He has under all conditions stood by his temperance principles. For many years he has been a member of the Selwyn and Christchurch Licensing Committees. Earnest, sincere, and level-headed, he is a helpful member of business meetings.

HORNER, F., Solicitor, Hawer is a pillar of the Baptist Church. Has been President of the Prohibition League for some years, and has taken a keen interest in the movement.

HOSKING, Dr. W. H., from his arrival in Masterton in 1875, to his death in 1916 was an earnest temperance advocate. He wielded considerable influence, induced many to become total abstainers, and is gratefully remembered.

HOVELL, Rev. De Berdt, Dean of Waiapu, chairman of the Committee which, in 1898, prepared the famous Anglican Synod's Waiapu report in favour of Prohibition. He was an able platform advocate. Elected vice-president of the Alliance, 1898.

HUGHES, Richard H., arrived in New Zealand when twenty-one years of age, with the Albertland settlers. For many years he was in the grocery business in Auckland. He was known as one of the old ardent temperance fighters and was secretary of the Hope of Auckland Rechabite tent. He died on October 2, 1920, aged seventy-eight years. His family includes Miss Anderson Hughes, Miss M. Hemming Hughes, well known on the temperance platform in England, Australia, and New Zealand, Dr. J. G. Hughes, Rev. H. B. Hughes, Mr. R. H. Hughes, Mr. J. A. Hughes, Mr. W. L. Hughes, Mr. C. H. Hughes.

HUGHES, Robert Cltntion. Barrister and solicitor of New Plymouth, is the last of the band page 233 of pioneer temperance workers in Taranaki. He was closely identified in the establishment of the Band of Hope Union in Taranaki and when the New Zealand Alliance came into being he shared the difficulties of its early days. To-day he is a loyal and staunch supporter of the Prohibition movement.

HUGHSON, Thos. P., of Rahotu, Taranaki, has been a worker since the first Local Option poll. For some years he was a member of the Egmont Licensing Bench. The last Methodist Conference elected him to the honourable position of vice-president.

HULKE, C., headmaster of the Newtown (Wellington) State School, realizing that the liquor trade was a menace to the children, worked with enthusiasm to remove it from the district and laid the foundation for the winning of No-License later.

HUNT, Rev. A. E., for many years as chairman of Prohibition Leagues, organizer, on the platform, in the pulpit, the press, and in councils and conventions, has rendered most valuable service.

HUNT, W. D. Born in Auckland 1867, one of New Zealand's foremost business men, director of big trading concerns, chairman Taxation Commissions 1922 and 1924, Member of Council Royal Agricultural Society and of Meat Control Board. Was member of National Efficiency Board 1917 which recommended the special poll on Prohibition with compensation. Outspoken Prohibition advocate, aiding the cause with time, voice, pen, and liberal financial support. Member of the N.Z. Alliance Dominion Executive, chairman of the Finance Committee, universally respected and highly esteemed for his sagacity and keen interest in the work.

INGLIS, Rev. G. B., as president of the Ashburton Prohibition League was a leader in the campaign when No-License was won in the electorate, and for many of the following years.

ISITT, F. W. Francis Whitmore Isitt was not always a prohibitionist. If his views of the use of liquor had remained what they were when I first knew him, and which he continued to hold up to the time of his arrival in New Zealand, his name would certainly not have found a place in the history of the New Zealand Alliance. He was born in Bedford in 1846. At that time the Total Abstinence movement was a comparatively new thing, and was by no means popular, even in religious circles. Frank Isitt grew up under social conditions in which the moderate use of alcoholic liquor was well-nigh universal, and he then saw no need for a change. We first met as fellow-students at the Wesleyan College, Richmond, in September 1869. We at once formed a warm friendship that has lasted ever since. We agreed on almost everything but the liquor question, and as a life abstainer I did my best to convert him to my views. But no word of mine moved him. He looked upon teetotalism as a fad that most sensible people soon grew out of. We came out to page 234 New Zealand together in 1870. On board ship we fought our liquor battles over again; but he was still confident that as a moderate drinker he would have more influence in his work than I should as a total abstainer. He met his Waterloo in his first charge at Balclutha. At that time Balclutha was notorious for drinking and drunkenness, and Frank Isitt was soon convinced that he was face to face with an evil that called for drastic treatment. In a few weeks he was called upon to bury no less than six men who, while intoxicated, had met their deaths by drowning in the river Molyneux. It was no small joy to me to find a flaming article from his pen in the New Zealand Wesleyan, in which he described the tragedies that had come under his notice, and declared his belief that it was the imperative duty of all Christians, especially Christian ministers, to do their utmost to drive the drink evil from our shores. It is an interesting coincidence that Balclutha, the drunkenness of which converted Frank Isitt into an ardent prohibitionist, was the first electoral district in New Zealand to carry No-License. The soundness of his conversion was demonstrated by the fact that his ardour in the cause of Prohibition never eased off while strength of body and mind lasted. After three years' service in Balclutha, he moved to Port Chalmers, where he spent two years. New Plymouth was his next appointment, which lasted three years. Broken health compelled his retirement from active ministerial service for eight years, during which he resided in Christchurch. His health was sufficiently restored to enable him to devote ten years more to circuit work, divided between Invercargill, Nelson, and Christchurch. It was in 1900 that he became secretary of the New Zealand Alliance, retaining that position until 1909, when, through another failure of health, he was compelled to resign. It is hardly possible to speak too highly of the service rendered to the Alliance by Mr. Frank Isitt during the years in which he was its secretary. He brought to his work clear and strong conviction, boundless enthusiasm, untiring industry, and a genius for comradeship, largely aided by a magnetic personality. He had great gifts as a platform speaker, and wielded a trenchant pen as editor of the Prohibitionist, afterwards known as the Vanguard. Nothing moved him to such blazing denunciation of the liquor traffic as the cruel wrongs it inflicted on women and children, and it is pathetic to remember him spending so much time in the closing period of his official connexion with the Alliance in cutting out from magazines of all kinds scores of pictures of little children, and pasting them on cardboard, writing underneath each picture the words, ‘Please Vote for Me!’ It was a joy to him to know that of the eleven electorates in which No-License had been carried in New Zealand, all but one had been carried while he was secretary of the Alliance, the exception being Clutha, where No-License won its first victory in 1894. Frank Isitt was a great page 235 gift to New Zealand, a fact that will become more and more apparent as the cause for which he so bravely struggled is recognized as essential to the well-being of the State.—W. J. Williams.

ISITT, The Hon. Leonard Monk, M.L.C. Born in the town of Bedford, England, seventy-five years ago, of Methodist parentage, neither Leonard, nor his brother Frank owed to home teaching their after enthusiasm in the Prohibition cause, for in the Isitt home alcoholic liquors were regarded as good creatures of God, and both came to manhood deeming teetotalism a weak fad. Leonard lost his father when he was two years old, and his mother when he was twelve. Leaving Bedford on the death of his father, he attended a noted Methodist school of that day— Clevedon College, Northampton. He was preparing for the Oxford and Cambridge junior examinations when the family funds gave out, and he was compelled to earn his own living at the age of fifteen. Apprenticed to the soft goods trade, he was induced to leave for New Zealand. For a short time he was with Messrs. Ross and Glendining, but was led to enter the Home Mission work of the Methodist Church at Lawrence with a view to entering the ministry. It was there he had his first real experience of the diabolical work of the liquor traffic. Like most mining townships, it was drink-sodden. Isitt saw that if he were to do any good there, he must become a total abstainer. He joined the Good Templars, but, so he says, felt very sorry for himself. However, having put his hand to the plough he was not the sort to look back. He plunged into the fight with exuberant zeal. From Lawrence he was moved to New Plymouth, where his brother Frank was minister. Both were by this time enthusiasts and, while working for the reclamation of drunkards, gave the liquor sellers a hot time. One of the latter was induced by young Isitt to give up the business, much to the indignation of his friends. While in Masterton the warfare against the liquor traffic was carried on vigorously, and the Trade, by way of retaliation, exploded a pickle-bottle full of gunpowder in his new buggy, smashing it to bits. In Wellington he organized Saturday night free concerts, as a counter influence to the drink bar. During his second ministerial year in Wellington, Sir William Fox, who had returned from a visit to England, sought an interview with a number of moral suasion workers. ‘Gentlemen,’ he said, ‘the work you are doing is valuable, but you will never destroy the race of cats by encouraging the birth of kittens. If you want to stop drunkenness you must turn off the tap. Get the electors to return men to parliament who will prohibit the traffic.’ Then and there was started the New Zealand Alliance for the abolition of the liquor traffic, Isitt following Sir William Fox as second president. From Wellington he went to Sydenham. The story of his experience there and his connexion with T. E. Taylor is told page 236 by himself in another section of this book. After some twenty years of Prohibition work, his temperance friends thought he deserved a holiday, and arranged for him to visit the homeland. The Alliance people greeted him warmly. He made a tour of the bars and gin palaces for first-hand information, and his hatred of the drink evil was intensified. By chance he attended a meeting at which Canon Scott-Holland was to speak. The Canon was ili and could not attend, and, in despair, the promoters asked Isitt if he would speak. He spoke for an hour and sat down. They asked for more and got it. Then came an invitation to speak at the Alliance Annual Meeting in the Free Trade Hall, Manchester, under the chairmanship of Sir Wilfred Lawson. After that, applications to hold missions poured in; and he enjoyed every one of them. On his return to New Zealand, the United Kingdom Alliance cabled, offering him a two years' engagement, which he turned down to fight for the Local Option poll in New Zealand. They renewed the offer after the poll, and it was accepted. The tour through Great Britain was most successful. Dr. C. F. Aked, the famous Baptist preacher of Pembroke Chapel, Liverpool, said of him, ‘When did we hear such speaking as his? Clear, pure Saxon, not a word misplaced, not a sentence which could be improved, every phrase a point, and every point sent home. Massive sentences falling like the strokes of a sledge-hammer, beating the feeble opposition of the dilettante into powder; lightning sentences, gleaming and flashing through the darkness of evil motive and cruel selfishness; burning fiery sentences that blast the coward and the traitor to scorn that is half divine; throbbing, swinging, palpitating words that fill the soul with deep and high resolve —a baptism of fire and a fresh consecration to the service of the living God. There are three or four men in this country who for one purpose or another are better speakers than Mr. Isitt. But this one faculty of his is unapproached. There is no man living in our midst to-day who arouses, as he does, the fierce enthusiasm of the meeting.’ There are some who think he took the wrong turn when he went into politics; that, as a moral reformer, his place was in the pulpit and on the platform. Not so, thought one of the ablest journalists in New Zealand. ‘He is one of the very few men in parliament that the country cannot afford to lose.’ The writer, speaking from a friendship of well-night half a century, knows Leonard Isitt as a generous-hearted, broadminded, cheery, and loyal companion— the very antithesis of a killjoy.’ A fearless fighter, without taint of malice, with a most joyous and natural gift of humour. A lover of his kind, especially of little children, and, deeper than all, as a man who, in his inmost soul, submits to the reign and the rule of the Christ.—T. A. Joughin.

JAGO, John Wesley (Dunedin). When he was elected president of the New Zealand Alliance in 1898, ‘Lynx’ in the Prohibi- page 237 tionist, said, ‘He is known and honoured in Australasia, America, and the Old Land as a man who has given a long life's service of heart and brain with tongue and pen to the temperance cause. An eloquent speaker and ready writer, with a mind stored with the fullest information on every question relating to our movement, he has for more than thirty years done battle for the cause in Otago and the rest of the colony. Amongst all our leaders for length of service and extent and variety of work Mr. Jago stands facile princeps. His charming personality endears him to all.’

JONES, Hon. Geo., M.L.C., was owner and editor of the Oamaru Mail. A large majority of the newspapers have been actively opposed to Prohibition and very few have been in favour of the reform, but Mr. Jones, both as a legislator and in the columns of his paper, supported the movement. The Mail was a contributing factor to the securing of No-License for Oamaru in 1905.

JONES, H. M., of Ashburton, has served the cause for many years, including membership of the Licensing Committee during exciting times.

JONES, Sir William Hall, M.L.C., has occupied many important public positions, including those of New Zealand's High Commissioner in England and Prime Minister of New Zealand. For many years he has been a New Zealand legislator and he could always be relied upon to support temperance principles. In the fullness of his powers he was an active worker in the cause.

JONES, John, was one of Wanganui's most highly respected citizens. Through his long life, because of his integrity, high moral principles and genial nature, he wielded a unique influence especially with the young men of the district. Almost forty years ago he was a member of a licensing committee which closed six hotel bars, and though the defenders of the liquor trade tried to reopen them they remain closed to this day. Though considerably over eighty years of age when he died suddenly, as the result of an accident, he was youthful and hopeful in spirit.

JORDAN, W. J., M.P., rendered good service as organizer for the Ohinemuri No-License League in the 1911 campaign. As M.P. he has supported his principles in the House and on the platform.

JOUGHIN, Rev. T. A., is a Methodist minister who for many years has been a close friend of the Prohibition leaders. In league meetings his counsel has been helpful, and in annual conferences he has read valuable papers. He has worked strenuously in the cause.

JOYCE, John, M.P. for Lyttelton in 1898, succeeded in placing on the Statute Book an act to provide for the establishment of ‘Inebriates Homes.’

JUDKINS, W. H., had a winsome manner, a courageous spirit, a clear method of reasoning, a pleasant and far-reaching voice, and was a popular speaker. He was born in 1869 at Maryborough, Victoria. He entered the New Zealand Methodist ministry, but had to resign for page 238 health reasons. He became organizing secretary for the New Zealand Alliance, and for several years rendered fine service. In 1902 he returned to Victoria, and for seven years was editor of the Australian Review of Reviews. During his attacks upon gambling and the liquor traffic he passed through many stormy scenes, but his campaign resulted in legislation being passed dealing with the evils. After a long illness he passed away in 1913. A testimonial of £1,800 was raised to mark the public's appreciation of his work.

JULIUS, Archbishop, of the Anglican Church, took his stand more than thirty years ago in favour of No-License. He has repeatedly made statements and issued appeals which have helped the cause, especially in Canterbury.

KELLY, Rev. Hugh, M.A. (Presbyterian) lived in New Zealand for twenty-two years. He was an enthusiastic Christian Endeavourer, and founded and edited The Burning Bush, an excellent magazine of the movement. In a variety of ways he worked for the temperance cause and in 1901 was elected president of the N.Z. Alliance, a proof of the respect in which he was held by his co-workers. In September 1903 he left New Zealand for Victoria, where he still resides.

KENNEDY, Justice, of Wellington. His counsel as a member of the executive and other meetings has been helpful. Recently he has been appointed Judge of the Supreme Court.

KNOTT, J. (Christchurch), with his camera, lantern, and voice did a splendid work throughout the Dominion.

LAIDLAW, R. A. One of the prominent business men of the Dominion, being general-manager of one of the largest trading concerns in Auckland. A singularly alert and active character. Mr. Laidlaw achieved commercial success at an early age. Fearless in his support of Prohibition principles, generous in his contributions to the Cause, and actuated by the highest Christian ideals, Mr. Laidlaw has made a notable contribution of service to the movement. Mr. Laidlaw has been closely associated with the Auckland Branch of the N. Z. Alliance and is a member of the Dominion Executive of the Alliance.

LANKSHEAR, W. J. (Wellington), in the early history of the movement was, for some years, a member of the Executive.

LAURENSON, George, for some years represented Lyttelton in parliament where he was a recognized leader. He rendered very helpful service in the struggles for temperance legislation. He was a man of strong moral backbone and a popular platform speaker.

LAURENSON, James, of Palmerston North, was, for a long period, secretary of the Prohibition League, and took an active part in aggressive campaigns.

LAWRY, Rev. Samuel. Throughout his long life, the Rev. S. Lawry has taken a leading part in temperance work. Seventy- page 239 four years ago he was born in Cornwall, and arrived in New Zealand with his parents in 1862. During his fifty years in the active ministry of the Methodist Church he was for six years secretary of Conference, sixteen years Connexional secretary, and twice he had the honour of occupying the presidential chair. When twenty years of age he was a representative to the first meeting of the Grand Lodge of the I. O. G. T., which was held in 1874. He has been president and secretary of No-License Leagues and Prohibition councils, and has used his facile pen as editor of campaign papers. For some years he has been a member of the Alliance executive. He is a forceful speaker, clear in judgement, and logical in his manner of reasoning. Had he entered the legal profession it is reasonable to suppose that he would have been appointed to a seat on the Judges' Bench, where he would have rendered valuable service. He is an able champion of the Prohibition cause.

LEADLEY, G. W., is one of the best-known farmers in the Ashburton County. He has occupied many public positions and been a leader of movements which have had for their object the financial improvement or moral uplift of the people. For almost half a century he has been a Methodist local preacher. He was a member of the Ashburton Licensing Committee for some years from 1894.

LEAVER, E. A. M. (of Christchurch), has worked among juveniles and has been president of the Canterbury Band of Hope Union.

LEE, Hon. E. P., has twice been elected member of parliament for the No-License town of Oamaru and was minister of Justice from 1920–1922. A strong advocate of the democratic vote on the liquor question, Mr. Lee has rendered notable service by his advocacy of the bare majority in the House of Parliament.

LENNIE, James, of Invercargill, was one of the original vice-presidents of the Alliance, and remained a steadfast worker to the end of his days.

LE ROY, E., was a leading Good Templar who introduced Good Templary into the British Navy.

LEVY, A., of Wellington, represented the Independent Order of Rechabites at the formation of the N. Z. Alliance in 1886 and was appointed secretary of the meeting. He took an active part in the discussions and stated that, as secretary of the Wellington Alliance he had taken 143 pledges in six months and placed over 300 names on the rolls and that the local alliance had an assured income of £200 a year. In those days a temperance society's success was partly measured by the number of pledges secured at its meetings.

LILL, W. T., was born at Huttoft, Lincolnshire, in the year 1846. More than sixty years ago he arrived in New Zealand, and for fifty years has farmed near to Ashburton. He has been a member of almost every public body in the county. As an official of the Methodist Church, he has occupied many positions, including that of local preacher, page 240 for more than fifty years, and vice-president of the Primitive Methodist Conference. He has been a standard bearer for the cause of temperance and worked hard to win No-License in Ashburton.

LOW, B., of Studholme, by constant precept and consistent example, created a sentiment in favour of Prohibition wherever he lived.

LUKE, Hon. C. M., is a Cornishman by birth, but few men have been better known in Wellington during the last fifty years. Because of his sterling character and ability, he has had the confidence and support of his fellow citizens. He has been member and president of many important associations, boards, commissions, committees, councils and clubs, including forty years membership of the Hospital Board, of which he was chairman for almost twelve years. For some time he was mayor of the city, and for seven years was a member of the Legislative Council. For fifty years he has served his church as a gifted local preacher. Three times he was elected president of the Primitive Methodist Conference and was the first vice-president of the united Methodist Conference. He is a foundation member of the New Zealand Alliance, and has been a member of the executive since its inception, with the exception of a short interval. Loving his fellow men, he has worked for their welfare.

MACKY, T. H., Auckland. Head of one of the largest warehouse firms in the Dominion, Mr. T. H. Macky is a man of high ideals and strong convictions, but of quiet and unassuming nature. Amid the pressure of a busy life he renders valuable service to the cause of Prohibition. He is vice-president of the New Zealand Alliance and also of the Auckland Branch of the Alliance, and a member of the Dominion Executive.

MALCOLM, Hon. A. S., M.L.C., was born in 1864 and has resided at Kelso and Balclutha. He was M.P. for Clutha from 1905 to 1922, and was chairman of committees in the House of Parliament from 1913 to 1922, and from 1924 has been a member of the Legislative Council. Both in the country and the House he has loyally supported the Prohibition cause. From the inception of the Clutha Prohibition League on November 11, 1893 to 1914, he was hon. secretary and was one of those who won Clutha for No-License.

MANCHESTER, George, like his brother John, was a prominent citizen of Waimate, a Church worker and a stalwart temperance leader.

MANCHESTER, John, arrived in New Zealand in 1859, and in 1863 commenced storekeeping in Waimate in partnership with his brother, George, and Samuel William Goldsmith, a shipmate. In 1879 he was elected first Mayor of Waimate, a position he again occupied from 1901 to 1907. He. was Father of the Borough and a lawgiver and patriarch, a founder of the Methodist Church and a local
Early Convention Group

Early Convention Group

Annual Meeting Group, 1929

Annual Meeting Group, 1929

page 241 preacher. He was a strong supporter of the temperance cause.

MARTIN, S. G., of Wellington, was manager of the National Mutual Life Association. He was chairman of the Alliance executive and deeply interested in humanitarian work. On his removal to Brisbane in April 1898 the Rev. John Dawson was appointed to succeed him as chairman of the executive.

MASON, W. F., J.P., of Hamilton, is a member of the Licensing Bench and has been a town councillor for twenty years. He is a polished speaker and a man to be relied upon.

MATHESON, A., was the first secretary of the Roslyn and Maori Hill Prohibition League.

MATHIESON, Dunoan, of Palmerston North, was a well-known and ideal League Treasurer.

MAUNDER, G. H., came to New Zealand in 1866 and began farming at Mauku, where he commenced a Sunday school and a Band of Hope, visited the sick and preached the gospel. He also took up the work of day school teaching for a time. In 1902 he retired from farming and lived in New Plymouth where he assisted in the erection of a Good Templar's Hall mainly in order that temperance speakers might be sure of a free hall. For a number of years he held the office of secretary and treasurer of the Prohibition League. He was an earnest advocate of scientific temperance teaching in the public schools, and his work did much to bring about the progress made. He generously supported the cause, and was a vigorous newspaper correspondent. In 1909 he was elected a vice-president of the N.Z. Alliance. See ‘In the Beginning.’

MoCOMBS, J., M.P., is a ‘true blue’ prohibitionist. In politics he is a prominent member of the Labour Party. He is fond of figures, and his analytical mind revels in dissecting financial returns and budgets. He has the gift of utterance and expresses his thoughts in a clear, concise and logical manner, and is a welcome speaker at public meetings. Member of the Christchurch Prohibition League for more than thirty years, organizer and president of the Canterbury No-License Council. He organized the Christchurch Young People's No-License League, which for some years did excellent work. He is a vice-president of the New Zealand Alliance. For eight years he was a member of the Christchurch City Council and for sixteen he has represented Lyttelton in parliament, where he has rendered valuable service as an able and zealous champion of the Prohibition cause. He is one of the temperance standfasts.

MoDERMOTT, William J. The McDermott family belonged to the Church of Christ. ‘Mac’ had the germ of Christianity in his heart which found expression in many services. Perhaps his most conspicuous service was as secretary of the Auckland Band of Hope Union, which office he filled for over a generation. page 242 The Licensing Committee was a means to temperance reform in those days and it was made an effective instrument in Arch Hill and other parts of Auckland by ‘Mac’ and other pioneers. In the nineties the Auckland Prohibition and Temperance Reform League was started, and added Reduction and No-License to the temperance reform programme, and ‘Mac’ was its first and very efficient secretary and helped to cancel many licenses in Auckland City. William J. McDermott was on the staff of the Herald as a journeyman printer for many years following which he acquired the first cinema plant in New Zealand, and operated it for a time. Later he left this to his sons so that he might become a stipendary worker for Prohibition as Auckland organizer, in which office he did fine work. He died in 1927 at the age of seventy-six years.

MoGIBBON, John was elected chairman of the Mataura Licensing Committee in 1891. He was president of the Convention of Gore Temperance Societies and helped to win No-License in Mataura. Later he visited many districts to tell the story of its success.

MoGREGOR, Dunoan, of Masterton, is well-known as a life worker for temperance. He has occupied many public positions, but he has never lowered his flag. He is chairman of the Wairarapa Sub-Area Council, and devotes much time to the work associated with the position. He was one of the leaders in the campaign when No-License was won for Masterton in 1908.

MoGREGOR, James, of Masterton, has a big, strong, healthy body and a genial nature, a clear brain and a fund of humour, the gift of expression and a strong personality. He is a natural leader. Born in Stirlingshire, Scotland, in 1844, at nine years of age he went with his parents to the Australian gold-fields. In 1865 he went to reside in Masterton, and during his residence he has had three special interests. 1. As a farmer he took a leading part in forming the A. & P. Association, of which he is a life member. 2. Sunday school work. He founded the Presbyterian Sunday School and has been associated with it for more than fifty years. 3. He is a sturdy prohibitionist and was one of the leaders in the great campaign when No-License was carried in Masterton in 1908.

MoNAB, Dr. Robert, was born in Southland in 1864, and was a man of strong personal character and high culture. He was a farmer, barrister, educationalist, and statesman. He was the first graduate of the University of New Zealand to take Cabinet rank. In his devotion to historical research in connexion with early New Zealand he visited America and most of the countries of Europe. As a result of his studies he published several valuable books. He was a man of noble ambitions and ideals, calm and deliberate in his judgement and a safe leader, a vigorous speaker, and a keen debater. He rendered valuable help to the Prohibition cause. In parliament he did much to prevent retrograde licensing legislation being passed, and assisted page 243 in promoting that which was progressive. He died February 1917.

MoSKIMMING, Peter, resides in the heart of Clutha, the pioneer No-License electorate of New Zealand. As in the centre of the district, so Mr. P. McSkimming has been in the heart of the temperance movement in his own district and in the Dominion from the earliest stages. Clutha has nobly kept the local Prohibition flag flying for thirty years. Mr. McSkimming, whose life and activities have been inspired by the highest Christian ideals, has been a power in the Dominion temperance movement, giving to it liberally of his gifts, time, and talents. Is one of the ‘big business men’ to whom the temperance movement is very much indebted.

MILLER, E. N., was for many years the indefatigable secretary of the Thames Prohibition League, and a vice-president of the New Zealand Alliance. An optimist, he possessed marked gifts of organization.

MILLER, Rev. H. W. J., was a Congregational minister. He became pastor of the Onehunga Church in 1882. He commenced the Congregational Church in Napier and founded a prosperous cause. He was an eloquent speaker, a good organizer, and a firm believer in Prohibition, and an inspirer of others. He was president of the N.Z. Congregational Union. He died November 12, 1904.

MILLIGAN, J. H. Born in Dumfries, Scotland, in 1841; came to New Zealand in the early sixties. Was from the first a strong advocate of No-License and rendered considerable service in the carrying of No-License in Oamaru, where he resides. Still takes a keen interest in the movement.

MILLIGAN, R., ex-mayor of Oamaru has, for many years, been energetic in supporting Prohibition principles.

MILNER, F., M.A., Rector of the Waitaki High School. In placing before his pupils the ideals of citizenship he has never failed to include total abstinence in his teaching. He has strongly maintained that scientific instruction on total abstinence lines should have a place in the curriculum of every public school. Mr. Milner, as a gifted public speaker, is interesting and instructive. He is a vice-president of the Alliance.

MONK, Riohard, in his day was well known as an enthusiastic temperance worker. As a platform speaker he was practical and helpful, and spoke with passion. For a time he represented Auckland in Parliament where he did valuable work. He took an active part in the Alliance annual meetings, and was one of the first vice-presidents.

MORGAN, Wm., farmer of Pukekohe East, was a man of versatile gifts. During the Maori War of 1863–4 he was newspaper reporter. After the war he was for some time schoolmaster and for many years a local preacher. Under the pen name ‘Agricola,’ he, for many page 244 years, conducted the ‘Farmers’ columns in the N.Z. Herald, and the Weekly News. In 1886 he was one of the founders of the N.Z. branch of the United Kingdom Alliance. He took the lead in founding several Bands of Hope and I.O.G.T. lodges, and was widely known as an advocate of temperance.

MULES, Bishop, of Nelson, was a pillar of the cause and a foundation worker. He issued numerous ‘Appeals’ to the people to vote No-License. He was a vice-president of the N.Z. Alliance.

MUNRO, Rev. P. R. The No-License cause sustained a great loss by the death, in 1897, of the Rev. P. R. Munro, minister of a Presbyterian church near Christchurch. In 1890, seven years before his death, he was a pronounced opponent of Prohibition. Then he came under the influence of Mr. T. E. Taylor, and the Rev. L. M. Isitt, and being essentially a fair-minded man, began to study the question more carefully for himself. Study brought conviction, and from that time onward he threw himself heart and soul into the movement, being recognized from end to end of the colony as one of the most gifted and whole-hearted of the leaders. The Prohibitionist was just then about to be started, and Mr. Munro was appointed co-editor with the Rev. L. M. Isitt. His able and vigorous articles in that paper at once attracted attention. Year by year the cause of Prohibition took a stronger hold upon him. He worked with a fiery enthusiasm for reform, but with all Christian charity. His ministerial work was characterized by faith, earnestness, and a wonderful devotion to duty. His death was sudden, and his departure was deeply mourned.

MURRAY, J. Malton. Born at York, in due time entered his father's business. In 1898 he went with his father and brother to the Klondyke. In 1900 was farming, and later entered commercial life. In 1903 was in South Africa engaged in Town Clerk's Office, East London. In 1904 entered journalism in London, and later specialized in commercial publicity. Served in the Essex Yeomanry during the war, and later in the War Office and as head of a section in the Ministry of National Service. After the war returned to publicity work until 1920, when he left England. Joined the staff of the New Zealand Alliance, November 1920, and has served as Publicity Organizer, Executive Secretary, Editor of the Vanguard, and is now General Secretary.

NEWMAN, Dr. A. K., M.R.C.S., was a member of many public bodies, and for a number of years represented Wellington in Parliament. He took a deep interest in sports and games, and was president of several athletic bodies, including the Rugby Union. In the House and outside, he was recognized as a reliable leader of Prohibition. He read papers at the annual gatherings and was a keen debater. His bright, optimistic temperament, his gift of humour and the fullness of his knowledge made him popular on the temperance platform.

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NEWMAN, Joseph, was a highly respected Auckland business man. Because of his personal influence, many commercial and professional men were induced to become connected with the cause. He also had a seat upon a number of Licensing Committees. He created a guarantee fund for the support of Mr. Glover, the first Alliance agent. As hon. secretary of the Alliance he reported to the 1889 annual meeting that though the Alliance had only been in existence three years it had 150 auxiliaries. During the year its one agent (Mr. Glover) had visited 140 places and held 189 meetings and given addresses at thirty-eight Sunday services in different churches, and that the balance in hand upon the year's working was £14 16s. 2d. He died towards the close of the year 1891.

NGATA, Sir Apirana Turupa, scholar and leader. The most outstanding figure amongst the Maori people to-day is Sir Apirana T. Ngata, M.A., LL.B., K.C.M.G., M.P. He was born fifty-five years ago in a Maori kainga named Waiomatatini. He is the recognized leader of the Maori people to-day, and stands head and shoulders above his compeers. He received his education at a Government Native School, the Te Aute College, and at Canterbury University. The call to service on behalf of his own people led him to give up what appeared to be bright legal prospects, and he organized the Te Aute College Students' Association, which soon blossomed out into the Young Maori Party movement, and became a very important factor in the work of reformation amongst the Maori people. Under the social and moral basis was the banishment of the evils of intoxicating liquor from the Maoris generally, and making it illegal to bring liquor into any Maori settlement. Sir Apirana is an indefatigable worker, both mental and physical, and is an expert on farming, both pastoral and agricultural. He has been a Cabinet Minister and was mainly responsible for the creation of the Maori Purposes Board, of the Ethnological Board, and the Board of Maori Arts and Crafts. His influence is so great that his Maori friends have recently jocularly dubbed him ‘the Maori Mussolini.’—F. A. Bennett.

NICHOLL, G. B., was an enthusiastic volunteer worker and rendered splendid service in connexion with the winning of No-License in Newtown, Wellington. He afterwards became a successful Alliance organizer. He was killed in a motor-cycle accident.

NICOL, John, has been for many years a devoted worker. With Mr. R. G. Denton and Mr. W. J Helyer, he commenced the Wellington Prohibition League and was appointed the first secretary. For many years he was superintendent of the Vivian Street Band of Hope. For fifty years he has been a member of the Independent Order of Rechabites. For more than quarter of a century, he was a member of the New Zealand Alliance Executive, and was a diligent worker on the sub-committees. page 246 For a number of years he devoted a large amount of his time and energy to work in headquarters office. He is a man who has done much spade work for the Prohibition movement.

NORTH, Rev. J. J., D.D., has, with the other ministers of the Baptist Church, advocated the principles of the Prohibition movement. For many years he has been editor of the N.Z. Baptist, and in its columns, on the platform, and in the pulpit, has, with marked ability, advocated the cause of temperance. As a member of the Alliance Executive, the annual conventions, and in other business meetings, he has been helpful with his counsel.

OKEY, H. J. H, of New Plymouth, was a vice-president of the Alliance who rendered much service to the community, and was a most reliable leader of the Prohibition forces in the district. He rendered excellent service in the House of Parliament.

OLIVER, Rev. W. C., was an early champion of Prohibition, who represented Wellington at the formation of the Alliance and was one of its first vice-presidents.

OLPHERT, Rev. J., is a Methodist minister who, in all his circuits, has advanced the cause of temperance and has been a most zealous open-air advocate.

OSTLER, Mrs., mother of Mr. Justice Ostler, was of the material from which martyrs are made. Calm, deliberate, sincere, courageous, and intelligent, she made sacrifice for the Prohibition cause, which she generously supported and earnestly advocated. She was a vice-president of the Alliance.

PACEY, H. E., was born in Lincolnshire, but has spent most of his days in New Zealand. He has been associated with leading business firms and on his shoulders there has rested the responsibility of management. He is a man of sound judgement, calm deliberate manner, keen insight, tact, and powers of organization. Most of his time has been spent in Auckland, where he was of great service in increasing the sentiment in favour of Prohibition. He has a kindly nature, combined with a pleasant manner of expression. In business meetings he helps to solve the problems under discussion. With his pen he has been most helpful. As secretary of Leagues, No-License Conventions, and Area Councils he has rendered unique service. He is a reliable man who never deviates from the straight path or the principles he professes. Such men are both the foundation and builders of our reform.

PALK, Chas., was organizing agent in several parts of the dominion. With pen and voice he faithfully served the cause.

PARKER, C. W. One of Blenheim's foremost business men, and an outstanding figure in Methodist Church circles, Mr. Parker has for many years been, and still is, a magnificent leader and worker in the Prohibition cause, giving generously of his time, effort, and substance.

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PARKER, William Benonl, J.P., (Blenheim), many years a very representative citizen, occupying an executive position on almost every local organization, and as such wielded a great influence for good in the community. He was a man of undoubted integrity, of untiring energy, of wide vision and indomitable courage. Being deeply religious and a devoted Churchman, he always put first things first and considered himself last. No man in the province took a keener interest in the abolition of the liquor traffic and at his death in 1911 was the president of the Marlborough Prohibition League, in which capacity, by example and precept, influenced many in the principles of total abstinence. Mr. Parker was a liberal giver to the funds of the league, and as such was very successful in inducing others to see their duty in that respect.

PATERSON, Rev. John, M.A., Presbyterian minister, Wanganui, has, for some years, been one of the front rank fighters. He is a forceful speaker, fully conversant with his subject, and never fails to secure the attention of his hearers. His gifts of leadership are helpful in the business meetings of which he is a member.

PAYTON, Joseph, was editor of of the Wairarapa Daily Times, Masterton. When he died the editor of the Vanguard said, ‘We question if there is a paper in New Zealand that has maintained as high a moral and journalistic standard as the “Daily.” Newspaper editing meant more to Joseph Payton than mere money-making, and he had his reward in the wide influence for good he ever exercised.’ The paper helped to win No-License for Masterton.

PENNY, E. H., was, for a long time one of Blenheim's leading citizens. For a number of years he was mayor of the town, and for over twenty-five years he had a seat upon the Education Board. For more than twenty years he was a member of the Prohibition League, and a recognized leader of the cause. Died September 23, 1926.

PERYMAN, Mrs. N., editor of the New Zealand White Ribbon, has been interested in temperance work since the days of her childhood. She was member of a Band of Hope, a Good Templar Lodge, and a Junior Rechabite Tent in due course. The first election after the women received the franchise she was Secretary of the Petone Prohibition League. In 1898 she joined the newly-formed W.C.T. Union in Woodville, and became its Secretary—Miss Powell being its founder. In 1910 she was appointed Dominion Corresponding Secretary for the W.C.T.U. In 1913 she was elected editor and business manager of the White Ribbon, a position she still occupies. For nine years she has represented the W.C.T.U. on the Dominion Executive of the New Zealand Alliance, and has also a seat upon the Standing Committee. She has been an earnest worker and rendered much valuable service.

PETERS, P. W. Closely identified with the Efficiency Campaign in 1919, Mr. Peters, a prominent business man in page 248 Napier, has for many years been a keen prohibitionist; takes an active part in Y.M.C.A. work. He brings energy, enterprise, and enthusiasm to the cause he has at heart.

PETHERICK, George J., J.P., was born at Picton in 1861. As a Methodist official he has for many years been Sunday school and Band of Hope superintendent. He is a member of the Wellington Hospital Board and for fourteen years has been chairman of the Social Welfare League and trustee of the Home for Aged and Needy. For fifty-three years a member of the Good Templar Order he has been Grand Lodge Secretary for nineteen years. For twenty-seven years he has had a seat on the Wellington Licensing Bench, and for sixteen years was a member of the New Zealand Alliance Executive.

PHILIPS, S. C., of the Dunedin Temperance Reform Council, and a man of wide experience.

PIKE, W. D., Blenheim, is one of the most successful agricultural farmers in Marlborough. Prominent in many public bodies, some time Deputy Mayor of Blenheim, at present chairman of the Marlborough College Board of Governors, a member of the Wellington Education Board, a member of the N.Z. Board of Agriculture, and treasurer of the A. & P. Association. He is also prominent in the Methodist Church, for which he was for many years senior Circuit steward. He has always been prominently associated with the Prohibition movement, and has liberally supported the N. Z. Alliance funds. He is, at the present time, president of the Wairau Prohibition League.

POOLE, Charles H., was born in Ireland. After living in Australia for some time, as a young man he arrived in New Zealand. For a while he worked in connexion with the Y. M. C. A. As a student of social problems he visited America, where he spent some years on successful lecturing tours. For about twelve years he represented Auckland in parliament, where he was a reliable champion of the Prohibition cause. He has rendered helpful service on the temperance platform, his grasp of the Prohibition question, his racy, and humorous style making him a popular speaker.

PRATTLEY, Mrs., who was formerly known as Miss Caroline Peck, was a former resident of Waimate. She was the first person to sing the famous campaign song, ‘Strike out the top line,’ as a solo in a temperance meeting. This was in Waimate, where it had been composed by Mr. G. Dash, who was also editor of the first New Zealand No-License Handbook.

PRIOR, Rev. S. F., wrote a series of able articles dealing with the Prohibition of liquor sales to Fijians and Maoris, published in booklet form. The articles had a wide circulation.

RAINE, Rev. Robert, a Methodist minister who was stationed at Ashburton and Invercargill during the campaigns when No-License was won in each elec- page 249 torate. He was a leader in the fights, and has also worked as organizer during several campaigns.

RANSOM, V., of Rongotea, was a prominent Good Templar official who spent much of his time and energies in extending the principles of the Order. He was a public man who sympathized with any work which had for its object the moral uplifting of the people.

READY, Rev. William. A man of striking personality, genial and witty, a very racy and popular temperance speaker who rendered excellent service to the cause. See Methodist Church.

REED, G. M. An able journalist on the staff of the N. Z. Herald. He wrote The Great Experiment, of which 120, 000 copies were distributed, also The Angel Isafrel, a book with a powerful Prohibition appeal.

RICHARDSON, William, Auckland. Much could be written of this fiery, impetuous, and fearless man. For years each week he spoke to crowds in the open air. In his paper, The Free Press, he printed fiery denunciations of the liquor trade and those engaged in it. He never lacked courage.

ROBBINS, B. C., during his residence at Hawera, was an energetic leader of the temperance forces in that district. In 1896 he was elected president of the Taranaki Prohibition Council. He has served the cause in other parts of the Dominion.

ROSE, W. H., was born at Dunedin in 1860. As a business man he had a successful career and was elected to many important public positions. In the Presbyterian Church he has occupied numerous representative offices. In 1884 he joined the Blue Ribbon Army and when the No-License movement commenced he became a member and later president of the Oamaru Prohibition League. He fought the liquor trade until, by a splendid majority, the people closed all the bars in the electorate. Today he is president of the North Canterbury Prohibition Area Council.

ROSS, Rev. John, of Turakina, was a gentle, lovable man and a genial comrade, but firm as a rock in matters concerning the welfare of the Kingdom of God. From 1866 to 1871, in face of bitter opposition he fought to remove the drink curse from Masterton. He was a well-known figure at the Palmerston North Convention. He died 1912.

ROYDS, John I., comes from a well-known Invercargill family. Long before the days of No-License he and other members of his family were deeply interested in temperance work. At present he is the managing partner in the firm of Royds Bros. & Kirk, and is also interested in other commercial affairs in different parts of New Zealand. Everywhere he is regarded as a man of sound business judgement, and of sterling integrity. He first came into active association with the Prohibition movement during the Great War, when the Efficiency League began to study the question from the standpoint page 250 of economic efficiency. By addresses and through the press he showed the losses inflicted on both the individual and the community by the liquor trade. His contributions to the press also showed what a grip he had of the subject, and attracted considerable attention. He was elected chairman of the North Canterbury Area Council, and was one of its representatives to the annual meeting of the N.Z. Alliance. His outstanding qualities soon became evident and in the year 1924 he was called to fill the president's chair. He filled this office with conspicuous ability and devotion for three years. He has been a persistent advocate of personal effort to win individual votes for Prohibition.

RUDD, William James, of Christchurch, was a Government insurance agent. He was elected to a seat on the historic Sydenham Licensing Committee, and shared the fights through which the members passed.

RUSSELL, Ven. Archd. J. D., Ordained 1891, and vicar at Opotiki, Rotorua, Bulls and Petone, appointed to St. Luke's Oamaru, 1911, and Archdeacon 1916. Ten years General Secretary C.E.M.S. in N.Z. Chaplain Lt.-Col. 5th (N. Otago) Regt., twenty years' service medal. Champion of No-License and Prohibition, many years president Oamaru League and vice-president N.Z. Alliance. Admired and respected by all who know him.

RYLEY, Rev. J., of Pembroke, and Owaka, was amongst the early workers for Temperance and Prohibition in New Zealand, rendering a devoted service and maintaining a keen interest in the movement up to the time of his death in December 1928.

SALTER, C. E., barrister, Christchurch, was, from the early days a staunch prohibitionist. His legal knowledge was always at the service of the party. For a number of years he served on the Christchurch Licensing Bench.

SANSON, H., of Rongotea and Wellington, served the community in various ways. He was a member of the Alliance executive.

SAUNDERS, Alfred. An early settler, merchant, educationalist, statesman, historian, advocate of the enfranchisement of women and champion of the temperance cause, Alfred Saunders was a true nation builder. He had been a temperance worker before he left England, and he bravely stood by the flag of total abstinence and his work was far-reaching. The piece of land on which he lived in the Nelson district was known as ‘Teetotal Section,’ and he was the first man to take a pledge in the province of Nelson. He was proud to count Sir William Fox as one of his converts to the cause of total abstinence, and it was through the leadership of Sir William that the New Zealand Alliance was formed. One Sunday afternoon, Alfred Saunders stood on a bullock dray in the main street of Nelson, and delivered a temperance address while the owner page 251 and driver both lay helplessly drunk underneath. A few days later, Ben, the bullock-driver, signed the pledge and for fifty-seven years was a great temperance worker. He took charge of the first New Zealand Pledge Book, and formed the first Band of Hope in Nelson. When, in 1886, each province sent in returns showing the number of criminal convictions in the past, the province of Nelson produced the smallest number of criminals and the result was officially attributed to the fact that since 1842 more than half the children in the province had joined the Band of Hope under supervision of Mr. Benjamin Crisp.

SAWLE, J. W., J. P., a well-known Baptist preacher, farmer, and ardent prohibitionist, who came to Ashburton in 1870. He occupied a prominent position in the life of the community. Died 1920, aged eighty-five years.

SCANDRETT, W. B., Mayor of Invercargill, who was appointed to represent New Zealand at World's Temperance Convention at Milan, 1913.

SCOTT, Thomas, who died in 1901, began his temperance work in England, where he was the first secretary appointed to the Good Templar Grand Lodge. He worked in Birmingham for many years in conjunction with Mr. Malins. He then came to New Zealand, where he remained closely connected with the I.O.G.T. until his death. He was also the Nelson agent of the New Zealand Alliance from the time of the initiation of the Society, rendering it good service by his earnest work.

SCORGIE, Rev. W., Presbyterian minister, dealt hard blows at the liquor traffic during his ministry. He was an original and logical speaker.

SELWYN, Bishop. The great Bishop Selwyn laboured in New Zealand for twenty-seven years, and was an ardent temperance advocate. He visited the State of Maine, and on his return to England in 1871 he made a great speech in Manchester in favour of No—License.

SHEATE, Geo., of Dunsandel, was well known as a leader at farmers' meetings, Methodist Church Synods, and Conferences, and a leader in the Canterbury Prohibition Council.

SHEPHERD, John, of Port Albert, introduced the Permissive Bill in the Auckland Provincial Council, 1869.

SMALLFIELD, Rev. Percy S., is an Aucklander, having spent the seventy years of his life in or near the city in which he was born. At twenty-one years of age he was appointed head teacher of Mt. Eden District school. Three years later he became an Anglican minister and later was appointed Diocesan Inspector of Sunday schools. Turning to the work of education, he became assistant master of the Church of England Grammar School, Parnell, later master of St. John's College School, and tutor of St. John's Theological College, and this was followed by the headmastership of the ‘Pah’ School. Since 1914 he has been actively engaged in the page 252 work of the Anglican ministry. Many young men, by his life and teaching, have been influenced for good, and his students have been very successful. He is faithful, zealous, alert and hard-working. He has a spiritual and kindly nature, and is broadminded. Being an abstainer and a prohibitionist, he has used his pen in advocating the cause of temperance. In 1917 he was appointed president of the New Zealand Alliance.

SMITH, The Hon. G. J., C. B. E., M. L. C., Christchurch, has been associated with the Prohibition movement since the early stormy days, and was a member of the famous Sydenham Licensing Committee in 1891. He was one of the prohibitionists elected to the House of Representatives in 1893. For many years he has been a champion of the cause in the Halls of Legislature. In 1898 he was elected a vice-president of the Alliance.

SMITH, Seth, of Oamaru, was, for a long time, a recognized leader of the movement. In representative councils he held a prominent place, and was a vice-president of the Alliance.

SMITH, W. H., of the well-known firm of Smith and Caughey, Auckland, was founder of the Helping Hand Mission, Hon. Superintendent of the Central Mission, and conductor of the ‘Christian Worker.’ A man of evangelical belief and a generous philanthropist, he assisted many humanitarian movements. He was elected a vice-president in 1891.

SMITH, William S. Lovell, head of the printing firm, which for many years published the White Ribbon, was an earnest advocate of Prohibition and Women's Franchise. In 1905 he wrote a book of history entitled, The Woman Franchise Movement in New Zealand. As his second wife he married Mrs. Kate W. Sheppard, the well-known leader of the Franchise struggle in New Zealand. He died April 15, 1929.

SOMERVILLE, John, was one of the founders of the Gisborne Prohibition League and an early president. He was an old school temperance advocate who ‘dared to be a Daniel.’

SOWRY, Jos., arrived in New Zealand in 1864, and settled in Woodville in 1871, when, with others he formed the Small Farm Association. He became a leading man in the district and occupied many public positions, including that of first mayor. He was a foundation member of the Hope of Woodville Rechabite Tent, and he rendered good service to the No-License movement. He died on March 12, 1904.

SPEDDING, Wm., of Auckland, was chairman of the Prohibition League in 1900 and onwards, and was leader both on the platform and in business meetings.

SPEIGHT, W. J. What a vigorous man was W. J. Speight ! What energy he put into his daily business or humanitarian work ! He went from Auckland to Wellington to be present at the inauguration of the New Zealand Alliance on Monday, March 1, 1886, and took a leading part in forming the Constitution. page 253 In the evening he spoke at the public meeting, and said that that day was one of the most important in the history of New Zealand. All through his life, Mr. Speight earnestly and with energy advocated the cause of temperance, of which he was a strong pillar. For some years he sat in the House of Representatives, first as member for Thames and afterwards as a representative of Auckland City.

SPRAGG, Wesley. ‘He loved his fellow man, and did his best to help him.’ This has been well said of Wesley Spragg, whose life and work are remembered throughout the Dominion. He was born in February 1848, at Madeley, Shropshire, England, and in 1863 accompanied his family to New Zealand. His father, Charles Spragg, was an uncompromising temperance reformer, a true Liberal, a staunch Nonconformist, and withal a man who sought to do justly, love mercy and walk humbly with his God. His son, Wesley, became a man of like characteristics, a member of the Congregational Church, and one of its prominent laymen. In those early days, conditions of life in New Zealand were precarious and hard. Unemployment was prevalent to an extent not understood to-day: wages were low, and social and industrial conditions rigorous. Wesley Spragg faced these conditions with the spirit of a true pioneer; he knew adversity, but was undaunted. He became a principal in a business which met with disaster, and one of the ‘big occasions’ of his life came years later, when, following an increase of prosperity, he discharged the liabilities of his old firm, although legally immune therefrom. In the business world Mr. Spragg is best known through association with the Dominion's Dairy Industry, of which he is recognized as a successful pioneer. For a few years before and after 1890 the Dairy Industry in the Auckland Province was in a parlous condition and was saved from collapse principally by Wesley Spragg's courage, capacity, and tenacity. He lavished generous gifts upon his adopted city, Auckland. But Wesley Spragg was perhaps most widely known as a social reformer. Every movement for social betterment knew him for a friend. His benefactions were manifold, his counsels wise, his help enthusiastic. For a generation he was the unquestioned leader of the temperance reform movement in the Auckland Province; for nearly twenty years he was president of the Auckland Province No—License Council; he played an important part in keeping alight the fires of temperance sentiment in the days when No-License was a by-word; he helped to transmute those fires into the vital force which cancelled scores of licenses throughout the province and which made Auckland the Banner City in temperance, reform. He was the very live president of the Eden No-License League when Prohibition was carried in that, his own, electorate. On No-License being carried in Ohinemuri and when ‘the trade’ attempted, by legal technicalities, to thwart the page 254 expressed will of over sixty per cent. of the electors, it was Wesley Spragg who rallied the temperance forces to a successful contest in the courts. During seven years, 1908–1914, he was the respected president of the N.Z. Alliance. During such term, he was influential in moulding the Legislative policy of the Alliance: he set new high standards of material generosity, and, by his personal service, made his influence felt throughout the Dominion. Wesley Spragg, in advanced old age, looks back upon a life well lived, and is made happy by the constant love of his wife, children and numerous grand-children, and by the respect of many who are proud to call him friend.— H. E. Pacey.

SPRATT, F. C., LL.B. For a number of years a leader in the Prohibition movement in Hawera, removed to Wellington, became a member of and is now Chairman of the Standing Committee of the N. Z. Alliance. A fearless champion of the cause, Mr. Spratt has rendered notable service as a member of the Dominion Executive, and in conducting Court cases—notably the Ashburton case in 1929—in the Courts.

SOUIRES, Mr., was a well-known worker in the famous Sydenham campaign. On October 26, 1887, she moved the resolution in the Oddfellows Hall, Addington, on which the ‘Prohibition League’ was formed. At the Prohibition open-air meeting in Christchurch Cathedral Square when Mr. T. E. Taylor delivered his first open-air address, she sang a solo. This was the commencement of those open-air meetings which became famed throughout the Colony.

STALLWORTHY, Hon. A. J., is a man who, by his straightforward dealings and high principles, commanded the respect of his fellow men. He was strongly opposed to packet licenses. He moved the resolution in the 1911 Convention declaring that the issue of such licenses should cease.

STALLWORTHY, John, the founder of the Wairoa Bell, strenuously supported the cause of Prohibition in its columns. As Member of Parliament he defended its principles and was an ardent worker in Bands of Hope and other temperance activities.

STEWARD, A. E., was a leader and worker in Dunedin in the early days.

STINSON, Rev. Thomas, Timaru, a Presbyterian minister who, in the pulpit, press, and on the platform, and in conventions and other business meetings, has rendered good service.

STOUT, Rt. Hon. Sir Robert, P.C., K.C.M.G., was born at Lerwick in the Shetland Isles in 1844. He arrived in New Zealand on April 3, 1864. For some years he was a master in Grammar schools, but in 1871, as a barrister, he became a partner in the firm of Sievwright and Stout. In 1872 he became a member of the Otago Provincial Council and in 1875 was elected to the House of Representatives. page 255 During his parliamentary career he was acknowledged as one of the strong men of the House, and he occupied the positions of Minister of Education, Attorney General, and Prime Minister. In 1899 he was appointed Chief Justice, a position he held with dignity and ability for twenty-seven years. In 1920 he was appointed to the Privy Council, and in 1926 he became a member of the Legislative Council. As an educationalist he has been a member of school committees and education boards. Since 1885 he has been a member of the University Senate, and for many years was Chancellor of the University of New Zealand. He was founder and president of the Educational Institute. He is well known as editor, contributor to important magazines, and lecturer. Throughout his long life he has upheld the principles of temperance in every position he has occupied. In 1866 a meeting was held in the Oddfellows Hall, Dunedin, to consider the best means of combating the evils of drink. Though it was well advertised, only twelve persons attended, but Mr. and Mrs. John Logan, parents of Lady Stout, Mr. Alexander Rennie, and Mr. Robert Stout were included in the number. These were pioneer temperance workers. The attendance was small, but Dr. Stewart reminded the meeting that Christianity commenced with only twelve apostles. In 1872 Mr. Stout introduced resolutions in the Otago Provincial Council to limit the sale of liquor. In 1876 he brought a Local Option Bill into the House of Representatives, the only two persons now living who voted for its second reading being Mr. De Latour and Sir Robert Stout. In 1881 a Licensing Bill was passed, and New Zealand was divided into a large number of Licensing Districts. Sir Robert was elected in three of the Dunedin wards, the committees of which refused to renew a number of licenses. In 1893 he introduced a Licensing Bill which passed its second reading, but was defeated by the Government, and the Premier, Mr. R. J. Seddon, brought in a Bill which was passed. As a humanist, Sir Robert has worked for the social and moral welfare of mankind. During his sixty-five years in the Dominion he has seen great changes, especially in the drinking habits of the people, and their attitude towards the temperance question. The members of the Prohibition party, as a mark of their confidence, on three occasions elected him president of the N.Z. Alliance. As a man of outstanding intellectual ability, great knowledge, wide vision, strict integrity, and high ideals, he has ever been fully trusted by the people as one of New Zealand's greatest men.—J. Cocker.

STUBBS, Mr., was president of the Palmerston North Prohibition League and Provincial Council and a leading spirit in promoting the famous conventions. He was a vice-president of the N. Z. Alliance.

SUTHERLAND, Robert, of Masterton, for many years rendered good service as secretary of the Prohibition League.

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SUTHERLAND, Rev. R. M. It is many years since the Rev. R. M. Sutherland first drew his sword against King Alcohol, but through his long and useful life as a Presbyterian minister, he has continued the fight. After Mr. R. T. Booth's long remembered Blue Ribbon Mission in Dunedin during 1892, the Roslyn and Kaikorai Gospel Temperance Union was formed, and as an active and enthusiastic temperance worker, Mr. Sutherland was appointed the first chairman. He proved to be an able leader of that live organisation. As an illustration of the zeal and energy of its members, a few months after the formation of the Society it was decided to offer a reward of £5 to any person supplying information which would lead to persons being conicted of selling intoxicating liquor in the district. Through the work of the society, many persons were induced to sign the pledge and wear the blue ribbon, and temperance sentiment was increased. On June 25, 1895, the Roslyn and Maori Hill Prohibition League was formed, and the Rev. R. M. Sutherland was one of its founders and has continued to be one of its active members. During his forty years' ministry at Kaikorai, Dunedin, he has had a purifying influence upon the life of the community.

TANNER, W. W., M.P. for Avon in 1897, awakened considerable interest in the country by his outspoken utterances in the House of Representatives regarding the open violation of the liquor Laws in Christchurch hotels on Sundays.

TAYLOR, E. H., of Thames, was an earnest minister of the gospel and a valiant worker for Prohibition. In the early days he was an acceptable platform speaker at public meetings, including the Alliance Annual Conventions. He occupied the position of N.Z. Grand Chief Templar from 1897 and onward. For some time he travelled about the Dominion lecturing on the Prohibition question.

TAYLOR, T. E. T. E. Taylor was well born. His father was one of God's gentlemen, and although he lived in a cottage all his days, he was a man of vision. He had a fine physique, great faith, a good character, a genial nature, and was an optimist. For years he travelled through the country pushing the circulation of The Prohibitionist. The temperance people were pleased to entertain Mr. E. Taylor in their homes, for his visits were greatly enjoyed. He had a fund of humour and left the families smiling. How proud he was of his son ‘Tom’ ! T. E. Taylor's mother had an intense nature and was mentally alert, an active social worker, with a passion for reform. He grew up with high ideals, which had their foundations in the nobleness of his soul. He loved the poor and suffering, and had an intense hatred of corruption in character, of shams and hypocrites. With a righteous indignation he condemned men who succeeded by crooked ways, trickery, or the degradation of their fellow men. Being the soul of sincerity, when an employer suggested to him that as a young man he should page 257 take a less prominent part in the Prohibition movement, he replied, ‘You buy my service, but not my conscience. My work is worth as much to some one else as it is to you,’ and putting on his hat, he walked out of the building. In 1896 he was first elected to parliament, and when the figures were made known, the crowd demanded a speech. ‘First,’ he said, 'Some one go and tell my mother of my success, for she will be the proudest woman in New Zealand.’ The people began to cheer, but he lifted up his hand and said, ‘Let us sing the Doxology,’ and the great mass of people sang,' Praise God from whom all blessings flow.’ But it was in his home, with his family, or among his books, or in the garden enjoying the beauties of nature that he was probably happiest. He was a religious man and he loved to tell how one night in the sanctuary a great light filled his soul and a new life was born within him. There was a religious impress upon all his work. He was a full man. To converse with him on world-wide politics, social reforms, the latest scientific discoveries, the works of nature, philosophy, theology, art, music, poetry, or religion, was a pleasure. When he entered parliament, the members expected that he would be a man of one idea and that Prohibition, but they soon found that he was brimful of ideas. He was a pioneer thinker and explored new realms of thought in social and industrial reforms. He had great courage. Public opinion, prejudice, or opposition could not turn him aside if convinced he was advocating righteous principles. In politics he was an Independent, and in the House of Parliament he was often the storm centre, but he remained calm. Had he united with either political party he would doubtless have attained Cabinet rank, for he had great gifts of statesmanship. He was an orator. He compelled others to think as he thought, and feel as he felt. He had sparkling wit, humour, sarcasm, and great gifts as a word painter. Often he spoke like an inspired prophet of righteousness and crowds flocked to him. Nowhere was he more popular than in Christchurch, where he spent his life. For years he was ridiculed by many people as a foolish would-be reformer, but as time passed, these persons began to respect and admire him. The city conferred honours upon him. Repeatedly he was elected to parliament, and for some years occupied simultaneously the position of Member of Parliament and Mayor of the City. He was trusted by the people because of his sterling character and powers of administration and organization. He became the man of the city. So many citizens sought his advice and judgement in private that it was almost impossible for him to attend to his own business. At the height of his power and the fullness of his influence, he died in 1911, and the whole Dominion realized that one of its greatest men had fallen. Almost his last words were, ‘National Prohibition is worth living for and worth dying for.’—J. Cocker.

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THOMPSON, Frank (Christchurch) has worked for Prohibition since the early days. Because of his 'self-denial, unwearied efforts, enthusiasm, and capabilities,’ he received a presentation in 1896. For a considerable time he was secretary of the Christchurch Prohibition League and Canterbury Prohibition Council.

THOMPSON, J. C. (Fielding). A witty Irish Methodist local preacher and an ardent prohibitionist of the early days.

THORNE, James, of Dunedin, was an earnest worker in Good Templary and Prohibition.

THORNTON, S., Principal of the Te Aute College, a scholar and gifted speaker. One of the leaders of the Young Maori Party.

TIDD, Jas. E., J.P., of Hamilton, has been in the fighting line ever since the first shot was fired on behalf of No-License in the Waikato. He is not only a man who counts in the Prohibition cause, but also in the public life of the community. He has been town councillor, member of the High School Board of Governors, President of the Waikato Winter Show, &c.

TODD, Charles. A successful Otago business man, Charles Todd realized early in life the evil of the liquor traffic, and became a live supporter of temperance principles, coming into prominence during the Efficiency Campaign in the war years. For some years he was president of the Otago Temperance Council, relinquishing that only to become Dominion president of the New Zealand Alliance. A member of the Catholic Church, he has exerted an appreciable influence amongst his coreligionists although no official gesture in favour of Prohibition has come from that Church. Sparing neither time, effort, nor money in his zeal for the movement, he has been particularly notable for his success in raising finance. In 1922 he brought ather George Zurcher to New Zealand and accompanied him on a Dominion tour of platform speaking. During 1926–7 he made a special trip to the U.S.A. and the Old Country studying Prohibition and license conditions and reported his conclusions. Active, generous, large-hearted, gifted with shrewd common-sense and humour, his cheery and keen personality has been a valuable asset to the movement.

TODD, J., was first secretary of the Roslyn and Kaikorai Gospel Temperance Union.

TREADWELL, Rev. J. (Wanganui), a Presbyterian minister who rendered valuable service to the cause of temperance in the early days.

TROUNSON, James. One of the early Albertland settlers, a lifelong advocate of temperance, for many years member of the executive of the N.Z. Alliance, and a member of the Kaipara Licensing Committee. Gave to New Zealand the Trounson Kauri Park. By hard work and indomitable energy was extremely successful, and with it page 259 all, a large-hearted, generous Christian character, a liberal supporter of the Methodist Church and of the Prohibition movement. Born at Cambourne, Cornwall, August 1839; died at Auckland, May 23, 1929, aged ninety years. He lived to serve.

TUCK, W. R., M.A., LL.M. A barrister who saw service with the troops during the Great War, Mr. Tuck is a man of high ideals, earnest aims, and keen interest in the educative aspects of temperance work. For some years president of the Auckland Branch of the N.Z. Alliance, he has expounded a policy of wide views and patient effort. His time, energy, and legal knowledge have been placed freely at the disposal of the movement.

TYLER, J., for many years was treasurer of the Auckland Provincial No-License Council.

UPTON, J. H., was chairman of the Auckland Education Board, and took a deep interest in the temperance movement. Presiding over the public meeting in connexion with the 1889 N.Z. Alliance annual gathering, he said there were 150 branches with 3,500 members, and that they must work hard to secure Local Option. It was stated in the meeting that in seven years Licensing Committees had only closed twenty-five hotel bars and there were then 1,500 in existence.

WADDELL, Rev. Rutherford, D.D., was one of Ireland's choice gifts to New Zealand. From 1879 to 1921 he was minister of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Dunedin. He took a leading part in founding, and was for seven years the very successful editor of The Christian Outlook, which was then the weekly organ of the Presbyterian, Methodist, and Congregational churches. He has published several volumes of sermons and other addresses. A Christian gentleman, a sound scholar, an effective speaker, and ready writer, he has rendered exceptionally fine service, and is still with us and wielding his pen in the interests of temperance and other social reforms.

WALKER, Rev. Edward, was a Congregational minister in England seven years, and was recognized as an earnest, energetic leader among the Yorkshire temperance workers before he left for New Zealand in 1878, where for twelve years he was engaged in the work of the ministry. In July 1890 he became the New Zealand Alliance organizing agent, a position he held for seven years. As Parliamentary agent he displayed considerable tact and was respected by the politicians. He had considerable gifts as an organizer. As a public speaker he was calm in manner, fluent but logical in speech, and his addresses were always packed full of convincing facts. He supplied much temperance matter to the newspapers. He wrote the Voter's Guide, which was published during the 1896 campaign, and 140,000 copies were sent through the post, and 20,000 otherwise distributed. Up to that time it was the biggest piece of advertising ever undertaken on behalf of the movement in New page 260 Zealand. After resigning his position as Alliance agent, he again entered upon ministerial work, retaining his active interest in the Prohibition cause.

WALLACE, Jas., Mr. WORKMAN, and Mr. WEIR, of Timaru, were members of the Prohibition League in the fighting days and were strongly aggressive in their attacks upon the liquor traffic.

WATERHOUSE, C. A lifelong advocate of the temperance cause, Mr. Waterhouse has for many years been on the organizing staff of the Alliance and earned the affection and esteem of those with whom he has been associated. Mr. Waterhouse is a pastor of the Church of Christ.

WATKINS, Edwin, of Ashburton, was a genial optimist and a constant fighter for No-License. His enthusiasm was contagious.

WATKINSON, Joseph, and his wife have, throughout their long lives been temperance workers among the young people of Auckland, and Mr. Watkinson was appointed to represent New Zealand at the World's Temperance Convention at Milan, 1913.

WATSON, Rev. H. C. M., an Anglican minister of the Diocesei of Christchurch, died in August 1901. A temperance worker from his boyhood, he was for years the most prominent of the Anglican clergy in Canterbury who identified themselves with the Prohibition party. He held office in the Christchurch League, and was at one time president of the Provincial Council. He was a man of wide sympathies, of catholic, spirit, kindly, genial and hopeful; and in time of stress and strain was ever ready with encouragement and active assistance.

WEBB, The Rev. Canon (Anglican), laboured in New Zealand for twenty years, and died on October 19, 1903. At Gisborne and Ormondville, where he succeeded the Rev. T. J. Wills, he was a loyal prohibitionist. His addresses were marked by fairness and moderation. He was genial, courteous, and a most lovable man, who was trusted as a leader.

WESNEY, J. J., of Invercargill, was president of the Southland Prohibition League, District Chief of the Rechabite Order and first editor of the N. Z. Rechabite, a position which he held for a number of years. In aggressive campaigns and other temperance work he rendered constant and excellent service. The members of his family are walking in their father's footsteps.

WHITE, C. Well-known and highly-respected, resident in the Marlborough district, he has, throughout a long life consistently battled against the drink evil and contributed substantially both in personal service and financially. Cheery and alert, unfailingly optimistic, Mr. White is a gallant soldier for the cause.

WHITE, Stephen, of New Plymouth, was a man who did with his might what his hands found to do. His brother, Rev. J. H. White, was an equally ardent prohibitionist. Earnestness and enthusiasm marked their work.

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WILLIAMS, The Venerable Arohdeaoon Samuel, was a lover of mankind, but he had a special affection for the Maoris, and they loved and respected him. He founded the Te Aute Institute for the uplifting of the Maori race. With his wealth he most generously supported every benevolent and righteous cause, including No-License. He was one of the founders of the N. Z. Alliance and some years later, in his absence, he was elected president, but owing to his many duties he was unable to accept the position. He was president of the Hawkes Bay No-License League. A loyal Churchman, he was in sympathy with all who worked for the good of humanity. He was a genial, noble great-heart, whose life was consecrated to God. He died in March 1907.

WILLIAMS, Rev. W. J., is one of the veterans and stalwarts of the Prohibition movement in New Zealand. Over eighty years ago he first saw the light at Redruth, in the county of Cornwall, England. After receiving a period of training for the Wesleyan Methodist ministry at Richmond College, he came to New Zealand, arriving early in 1871. Among his fellow passengers were two young men, both of whom made their mark on the pages of New Zealand history. One of them, then a mere lad, afterwards became Prime Minister of the Dominion, and will be remembered as the Right Honourable William Ferguson Massey. The other had been a fellow student at Richmond with Mr. Williams, and the name of the Rev. Frank W. Isltt will always be associated with the Prohibition cause in New Zealand. In those days, however, Frank Isitt had not learned his first lessons in the work with which he was later so closely associated. It was Mr. Williams who was the advocate of total abstinence, and sought to make a convert of his companions. During the whole period of his residence in New Zealand, Mr. Williams has been a fearless and effective speaker and writer on behalf of every phase of temperance. Long before the formation of the New Zealand Alliance he used his whole influence against the liquor trade and all its doings. He denounced it from both pulpit and platform with all the force supplied by deep and intelligent conviction. But it is as a writer that Mr. Williams has done the most conspicuous service for the Prohibition cause. For a long period he contributed to the columns of the official newspaper of the Methodist Church, and he was always in the van of the fight. His articles had a great educational value and went far in making the Methodist Church of New Zealand the fighting force which she has been for many years past. The editorial and other columns of the Vanguard, also have had the benefit of his facile and forceful pen. The journalistic advocate of liquor always found in him a foeman worthy of his steel. This was never more apparent than when he entered the lists in the correspondence columns of the daily press. Mr. Williams has also been as faithful and efficient in page 262 administrative work as in his advocacy of the cause which always has had such a large place in his heart.—S. Lawry.

WILLIAMS, Mrs. W. J., who for some years has been superintendent of the Methodist Deaconess Institute, Christchurch, has spent her life work in seeking to help others. As sister of the people, preacher of the gospel, and in Christian social work, she has used her gifts. She is vice president of the North Canterbury District Women's Christian Temperance Union. During Prohibition campaigns she has given addresses in various parts of the Dominion. By her gracious personality and impressive style as a speaker she has rendered very helpful service.

WILLS, Rev. T. J. In the year 1863, a Mr. Albert Wills, a farmer, settled in Nelson. His second son, John, was then in his ninth year. After some years' work in the Methodist ministry, Mr. Wills entered the ministry of the Church of England, and was stationed at Opotiki. Finding that the liquor traffic was the dominant power in the district, he enlisted the aid of the Rev. John Gow, a Presbyterian minister, and of Mr. T. W. Glover, Alliance lecturer, and founded a Gospel Temperance Society. In the first year 250 members were enrolled, and later about 400 Maoris joined the ranks. The reform made such a change for good in the habits of the people that the local brewery ceased work, and the publicans were unable to pay their rent. This loss of business roused the whole liquor interests to violent opposition. A newspaper campaign was launched against Mr. Wills; he was stoned when out at night, kicked and lashed in open day, and on one occasion his face was badly cut about. His wife's health was so broken by anxiety on his account that for her sake he consented to leave Opotiki and to accept the cure of Ormondville in Hawke's Bay; but his work in the former district had made a lasting impression there for good. In 1894 he published a book entitled, The Church and the Liquor Traffic, which was very favourably received in New Zealand and in England as well. In 1896 he wrote the work by which he is best remembered. Vigorous in mind and of strong physique, he threw himself into the fight for Prohibition with such energy that his health became undermined; and after a few months of great suffering, he died on January 24, 1902.

WILSON, Thomas. When Mr. Thomas Wilson of Waikuku (Kaiopoi) died, it was said that he was one of the oldest and most earnest workers for temperance reform New Zealand had ever possessed.

WITHY, Edward, was highly respected as a public man in the city of Auckland. He rendered useful service to the cause of Prohibition when a Member of Parliament. For a time he was acting president of the N. Z. Alliance.

WOODWARD, Rev. W. C., was for several years agent and lecturer for the Grand Lodge of Good Templars.

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WORSLEY, W. H., of Hamilton, was for twenty-six years headmaster of the High School and one of the presidents of the Prohibition League. He was strong and steadfast in his opposition to the liquor trade. He died recently in Auckland, but his influence still lives.

WRIGHT, Hon. R. A., M.P. has been a lifelong worker in the temperance cause. He is a humanitarian and has a fine record of work for his fellow men. He has filled many public positions, including that of Cabinet Minister, Mayor of Wellington and membership of many important public committees.

YOUNG, Hon. J. A., M.P. (Hamilton) has always loyally stood by his Prohibition principles. Has been M.P. for Waikato since 1911, Minister of Health, 1925–28, fourteen years on the Waikato Licensing Bench, on the Board of Governors Hamilton High School, and chairman of the Hospital Board.

YOUNG, Mr. and Mrs. J. S., (Hawera) have for more than half a century fought the liquor traffic.

YEREX, G. M., worked for the cause in various ways and places. He was president of the Tauranga No-License League. In 1893 at his own expense he visited a number of the No-License States of America and secured much helpful information which he circulated by addresses from the platform and numerous articles in the press of New Zealand.