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The Early Journals of Henry Williams

V — January to December 1831

page 168

January to December 1831

Peace parleys at Hokianga, Mangakahia, &c. — War party to Tauranga — Karere launched — Trouble with Rotorua Maoris — Journey to Rotorua — More peacemaking.

Thursday, 13 January, 1831.* We all went up the river to see the boundary of the land proposed by Tohitapu. On our return found Mr. Yate who had taken his leave of the Kerikeri, ready for his departure. Mr Hobbs also from Hokianga, to ask our advice upon certain questions of a public nature.

Friday, 14. Fine weather. At noon a ship hove in sight. About 4 o'clock, two boats came on shore from the Loydes, with three Wesleyan Missionaries and their wives, on their way to Tonga— their appearance most wretched, that of persons in a decline. We were happy in being able to administer to their wants, for they appeared to stand greatly in need of assistance. Not a single letter for anyone in the Mission! ! !

Saturday, 15. In considerable bustle through this inundation.

Sunday, 16. The Chapel full to excess. Mr Shepherd's little boy and two native children were baptised.

Monday, 17. At 6 the Wesleyan Brethren, with Mr. Brown and myself left for the Kerikeri—had an agreeable passage. At 3 p.m. moved on for Hokianga1, with the assistance of three horses. At sunset, halted for the night by a small wood—passed a very agreeable evening.

Tuesday, 18. At sunrise moved on and soon entered the wood The day very sultry. Did not meet any natives till we arrived at Waihou, where we saw Nene. They were building a pa as protection

* From this point to the entry of Saturday, 29 January, there is much confusion in the dates given by Henry Williams. His brother's journal gives the dates 6 and 7 January for Henry Williams's “Thursday, 13 January” and “Friday, 14”, but he confirms the date of 29 January for the return of Henry Williams and Fairburn to Paihia from Mangakahia. From internal evidence it is clear that the dates given by W.W. are correct.

page 169 for the Rarawa—peace is not yet settled. At dusk we arrived at Mangungu.

Wednesday, 19. Commenced our consultations. For a considerable time everything doubtful—by 9 o'clock the sky serene.

Thursday, 20. By 5 o'clock everything concluded ready for our return. Landed at Waihou, where we remained for the night.

Friday, 21. Before sunrise we were on the move—mounted our horses and rode through the first wood. Breakfast at the last crossing, from whence we walked to the Puru—from whence we rode to the Kerikeri and passed on to Paihia. Learnt that Tohitapu had been speaking on the propriety of going to Mangakahia to endeavour to make peace.

Saturday, 22. Much fatigued with my journey.

Monday, 24. Titore came over to request some of us to go with them to Mangakahia2 to endeavour to make peace. Concluded to accompany them. Wrote to Messrs. Kemp and Shepherd, to request them to proceed with the other party—according to the suggestion of the natives. Settled with Tohitapu for the land.

Tuesday, 25. Titore came over early this morning to say that we must not proceed on our projected expedition, when Hara3 came forward to give some explanation as he had just returned from the Chiefs of the party, who had desired that none should pass by their plantations during their absence—moreover, that his sticks which he had thrown the evening before—indicated much fighting if we were to go. We said everything we could to induce them to move, but to no purpose. Both Mr. Fairburn and myself felt strongly persuaded of the propriety of going by ourselves by way of the Waimate, but were afterwards dissuaded by Tohitapu, who talked at such a rate as to frighten our wives and children.

Saturday, 29. Nothing in particular during the week. Cap. Brind arrived. H.M.S. Comet arrived from Port Jackson direct on Friday, in company with a Bark on their way to Pitcairn's Island to remove the inhabitants thereof to Tehaiti. On the return of Mr. Davis from the Waimate learnt that there was no prospect of peace at Mangakahia—their state very bad, a gloomy appearance. Taewanga went to Kororarika to give information.

Sunday, 3. After service my brother and I went over to Kororarika to see the Chiefs of Ngapui. They were principally there. We page 170 conversed with them for some time but to no purpose. No one would move in order to make peace. Cap. Brind came up to us in company with the Captain of the Nelson, who brought some dreadful accounts from the neighbourhood of the east cape. He had put in there with 3 boats and had rescued a man a European who swam off to him, there being too much surf to land. Upon which the natives opened fire upon them, and discharged about 300 rounds. No one was hurt in the boats. The Nelson arrived in the course of the evening. Concluded to leave early in the morning to proceed to Mangakahia.

Monday, 4.* Proceeded early to Kerikeri. Took an early dinner and passed on to Waimate. All well there—great abundance of food. Greatly admired the road and general appearance of the country— rich and picturesque. After refreshment, mounted the horses and proceeded to Mangakawakawa, through extensive cultivation. The facility and pleasure of travelling by horses is worthy of remark. We passed rapidly along and enjoyed the scene around without fatigue, whereas on the road from the Kerikeri we had suffered considerably from the sun and heat. At sunset brought up for the night. Several persons passed on their way from Mangakahia— Ngaro4 informed us that no communication had taken place between Messrs. Shepherd and Baker with Tirarau5—that from the distance between the parties they were afraid to move—that scouting parties were out on both sides doing all the mischief they could—that the brethren would have returned, but that it was considered dangerous unless they had a strong escort.

Tuesday, 25. Rose at Daylight, and moved on immediately to Kowaewae where we halted for breakfast. None but women at the place—very civil. Passed through much fine land, until we arrived at Waipiro—some small lakes of sulphurous water. At 5 passed Tikorangi—halted at some water to dine. At sunset brought up for the night. No natives near.

Wednesday, 26. At daylight arose and moved on—had to pass the river several times running to Kaipara. About 2 o'clock came in sight of the first Pa at Mangakahia. The natives received us kindly. Met Messrs. Shepherd and Baker on their return home. Their account was very dismal. They had proceeded on Monday to the

* W.W. gives the date of this entry as 24 January. Henry Williams was accompanied by W. T. Fairburn.

page 171 outer Pa, and arrived at it a little before sunset. As soon as they came in sight of the people in the Pa, they were fired upon, and continued so to be until they retreated behind some rising ground. After which they were called to come forward and entered into the Pa. The natives were exceedingly uncivil, and in their various speeches declared their determination to fight. On the Tuesday morning they left the Pa and came away.—Had much conversation with the natives here. They were very kind and killed a pig for us. Concluded that we all had better return on the morrow, as most of the natives with Temoranga and others had returned.

Thursday, 27. Every appearance of a gale of wind. Commenced our journey homewards. About 10 o'clock it came on to rain violently. At 6 o'clock we halted for the night much fatigued, and everyone wet from head to foot. Took some refreshment and laid down to sleep—distributed our blankets to the boys to preserve them from cold.

Friday, 28. A most dreadful night—could not sleep—had frequently to get up and hold on the tent. At daylight strong gale and heavy rain. Determined to proceed owing to the insecure position of our quarters. About 7 o'clock moved on, the wind and rain so violent as greatly to impede our progress. All the creeks and rivers full of water—passed some with great difficulty. At 10 o'clock the rain ceased, at noon arrived at the Waimate well soddened with rain, and at 8 at the Kerikeri, somewhat fatigued.

Saturday, 29. Fine morning. At noon arrived at Paihia. All well.

Sunday, 30. After service went over to Kororarika—had much conversation with the Chiefs there. They appeared uneasy at the accounts from Hokianga. Some of them determined to go, others to remain quiet, and for those who particularly desired to fight to go by themselves.

Monday, 31. In the afternoon the brethren arrived from the Kerikeri and Rangihoua. In the eveng. commenced committee proceedings.

Tuesday, 1 February. At close business all day. Cap. Duke arrived for England.

Wednesday, 2. Concluded business this afternoon. The Ship Loyd arrived for the Wesleyan Missionaries.

Friday, 4. The Wolf anchored at Rangihoua.

Saturday, 5. Went over to Rangihoua for the purpose of remaining the Sabbath, or rather of holding services in the morng. as Mrs. W. was far from being well. Two whalers at anchor there. Had occasion to go on board the Wolf. Saw both the Captains, they were particularly polite.

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Sunday, 6. Between 20 and 30 men on shore, from the two vessels to attend service. They behaved well. After which a note was brought to me with the information that Mr Preece6 was on board the Olive Branch, which had just arrived, to join the mission. After dinner had some very pleasing conversation with two boys belonging to the settlement relative to baptism. Their answers were good and clear. Concluded that they should be admitted to this holy ordinance in a short time. Returned to Paihia—saw Mr. Preece and read several letters from England and New South Wales.

Monday, 7. Read Capn. Davey's letter7 to Mr. Clark, also Mr. C.'s observations upon the conduct of these people when at the Waimate. These letters will probably be forwarded home, to be recorded with the remarks of Captain Dillon. Surely Satan must be driven to some of his last holds from the malice we witness amongst these whalers.

Wednesday, 9. The Wesleyan brethren arrived from Hokianga this eveng. very much fatigued by their journey.

Thursday, 10. Went over to Kororarika this afternoon to see the Chiefs there. Had a pleasant conversation with them. We feel it very needful to be very frequently amongst them.

Friday, 11. Went up to the Pa. Saw most of the Chiefs. They were very attentive generally tho some dead and insensible.

Saturday, 12. The Wesleyans embarked this morning, and soon worked out of the Bay. Some of the boys went up the river to speak to the Natives.

Sunday, 13. No strangers at Service this morng. Could not move out owing to the state of my leg. Conversed with Taewanga and others upon the general state of the natives. Taewanga went over to Kororarika in the afternoon.

Monday, 14. The Ann, Cap. Christie, arrived.

Tuesday, 15. Three vessels sailed from Kororarika. Several of the boys and girls came this eveng. with whom I had some very pleasant conversation.

Wednesday, 16. My boy Taha came to me after our prayer meeting to converse with me upon the state of his mind. The poor lad had his thigh broken some time since, while getting up a large log page 173 of timber in a gale of wind, and has ever since been very attentive to school and the means of grace. He had well nigh paid the debt of nature upon that occasion. He has constantly a strong desire after the truth.

Saturday, 19. Obliged to sit close this week owing to my leg, the appearance of which makes me uneasy. In the afternoon Captains Christie and Duke came over.

Sunday, 20. Two Captains and one boats crew over to service. Every appearance of a Gale of wind from the Eastd. Rain during the latter part of the day.

Tuesday, 22. Rain all day.

Wednesday, 23. Heard this morng. that some natives had been killed at —— and that the Urikapana were disposed to seek satisfaction. The last of the copper nailed upon the small vessel8, which we hope to launch in a few days, to send for potatoes.

Thursday, 24. Mrs. Williams safely delivered of a Girl.9

Saturday, 26. Launched the Karere our small vessel to the edge of the bank, where she will remain till she is rigged.

Sunday, 27. Service as usual. No one over from the Shipping. Could not move out owing to my leg. Mrs. W. and baby doing remarkably well.

Saturday, 5. March. Went on board the Active to hear difference which existed between the Mate, crew and Captain. The Articles drawn out in so indefinite a manner, that we could do nothing. Some of the crew very insolent to the Captain.

Sunday, 6. After service went to Kororarika to the natives.

Monday, 7. The Brethren from the other settlements arrived for the quarterly meeting.

Tuesday, 8. Went to the Active with Mr. Yate. Mate and crew in sad state. Settled school question. In the eveng. felt very unwell.

Wednesday, 9. Very ill through the night and continued so all day. Ship Nancy anchored from Port Jackson.

Thursday, 10. Captain Pryce, two ladies and some gentlemen passengers landed. Much better today.

Friday, 11. Mr. Brown and I went on board.

Saturday, 12. Captain Pryce and passengers came on shore, appeared much refreshed.

Sunday, 13. Blew strong. No one on shore to service.

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Monday, 14. Ship Nancy sailed. Went over to Kororarika to the natives. Dined on board of Cap. Grey's ship. The behaviour very good.

Wednesday, 16. Active sailed to Rangihoua for the purpose of taking Mr. Shepherd and family on board. Mr. Chapman and I went over to see Mr. S. Cap. Jack sailed in Prince of Denmark. 14 Heads10 on board of relatives of principal chiefs of Ngapui, who were killed lately at Tauranga.

Thursday, 17. Mr Brown and I went to Rangihoua. Mr. and Mrs. Shepherd not on board.

Friday, 18. Obs'd the Active working out of the bay. Wind. N.E.

Saturday, Sunday & Monday, 19, 20, 21. Very wet. No afternoon service on Sunday.

Wednesday, 23. Fine. Went up the Kauakaua to propose our having a small settlement for the purpose of more regular instruction. Kindly received and observed a considerable improvement in their attention. Several have been enquiring after truth. A Ship anchored in the River.

Sunday, 27. Our two little babies baptised. Thos. Sydney and Catherine. Not out today.

Tuesday, 29. Mr. and Mrs. Chapman11 left for the Kerikeri, their future place of abode. Went up the Kauakaua to arrange for the settlement. Gave instruction for the erection of a small raupo house for any of us who might be up there. Hope much benefit will result from this step. The attention of the natives very good.

Good Friday, 1 April. Held Service, after which went to Kororarika—the natives very indifferent. While there the ship Hope arrived whereby I had a specimen of their feeling at such times. Tho they had been perfectly careless to what I had been saying, yet they now rose with one accord and flew to their canoes to see who should be first in the prosecution of that vice and iniquity which is the curse of this land.

Sunday, 3. After service went to Waitangi. Report among the natives of the death of Mr. Tapsel—that he had been killed and eaten in the neighbourhood of Tauranga, together with his wife, the sister of Warepoaka and others. He had been put there by the page 175 House of Jones and Walker of Sydney12 for the purpose of collecting flax. The natives in considerable agitation in consequence of the various accounts from the Southd. of the number recently killed.

Monday, 4. Quarterly committee. Did not attend wishing to urge on the Carpenter's work. Could not go up the river owing to the ill behaviour of the boys. In the eveng. rec'd a message from Modunga13, to go up to the Pa in the morng. as the natives were preparing to go to the Southd. to fight14.

Tuesday, 5. Went up to Otuiho. Chiefs very civil. Told me that if our anger was very great they should not go, but that we must proceed with them to Kororareka to attend the council which would take place tomorrow if it should be fine. From the Pa we went to Kororareka to see the Ngapui, Titore and Rewarewa15 landed while I was there. The conversation with everyone very favourable.

Wednesday, 6. Wind from the Northd. rain through the day. Kope, the wife of William Lewington16 died after lingering illness.

Thursday, 7. Went up to the Pa—saw Kauwiti, Hihi17 &c. They were very kind and attentive to all I said. Kuki18 came up from Kororareka to converse about the projected fight—a very friendly man and well disposed. The taua to move tomorrow.

Friday, 8. Blew hard N.N.W. with rain occly. Canoes could not come. A very pleasant conversation with natives in the eveng. at the Chapel. Heard pleasing accounts from the Kauakaua.

Saturday, 9. A heavy gale, much rain latter part of day.

Sunday, 10. A gale with rain. No service in the afternoon.

Monday, 11. Much rain through the day.

Tuesday, 12. More modt. Mr. Brown and I went up to the Pa— no one disposed to move—all for tomorrow.

Wednesday, 13. Fine morng., no rain through the day. At sunrise the Taua obs'd on the move. We joined in two boats—there were twelve canoes well manned, besides several others containing page 176 women and children. As we drew near the beach the muskets were discharged and all began dancing and singing. When we landed we learnt that Moka had blown his hand nearly off with the bursting of his musket. Rec'd a note from Mr. King with the account of the death of his infant. At 3 o'clock the natives began their speeches, when it was concluded that they should return to their own places and wait for the summer which meeting we trust the Lord will frustrate.

Thursday, 14. Mr. Brown and I proceeded to the Kerikeri to attend a meeting upon the projected alteration and addition for the School. Much rain in the eveng. Returned by 11 o'clock—tedious pull.

Friday, 15. Had to hold long conversation with Motoi &c. and give some payment for the 'Haumi.

Saturday, 16. Girls very troublesome.

Sunday, 17. Wind from the Southd. Rain commenced at 7. No afternoon service. Strong gale. Heavy rain.

Monday, 18. Gale subsided—very fine. In afternoon Mr. Yate arrived from the Waimate.

Tuesday, 19. Commenced the language meeting. Many interruptions by the natives. Old Tarea and some of his wives—very civil.

Wednesday, 20. Mr Brown and I went to the Ti by water and passed on to Tapuetai and Tako, where we arrived by dusk. The road very rough, had to pass through three rivers, and to scramble over rocks which were just out of reach of the surf. We were met by all the natives of the settlement and conducted into the Pa. Old Wata19 very attentive to our wants, and in a short time we had the tent up and our tea prepared. As this was the first time of our coming here all thronged around us and several intruded within the tent. Old Wata lay down in the centre and the natives at his back, reserving the remainder for us. Every prospect of being over run with fleas and kutus. However as it was an important period, they being the principal people in the projected fight, as the people who had been so lately killed were their immediate relations, we conversed about the death of their friends20, the war, and peace with God through Jesus Christ our Lord—and certainly, I never was more gratified. They paid great attention. They stated their ignorance and pleaded the necessity of instruction and their savage desire for fighting appeared to vanish. We kept talking till eleven o'clock when we cleared our quarters with some difficulty and laid down to rest.

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Thursday, 21. At daylight obs'd the Taua afloat from Taumatangi. Consequently after breakfast turned back, and arrived at Paihia at 5 o'clock.

Friday, 22. Obs'd the Taua go to Kororareka. My brother and I went over there to see them. Their conversation was very good. Rec'd by all very graciously. Mate21 and his party there. In the afternoon the general assembly—conclusion very doubtful.

Saturday, 23. Fine. Noon went over to Kororarika. Learnt the expedition was frustrated. Passed on from thence to Rangihoua by sunset. The bark Lynx close to the beach.

William Lewington told me that the settlement was worse than a prison and that he was miserable—recommended him to obtain his freedom as soon as possible.

Sunday, 24. No one at service from the Ship, tho several were on shore prowling about. No Natives excepting those belonging to the school, and very few of them. In afternoon went to a party of girls who were congregated together on the beach, rolling about in the sun, having come from the vessel. I spoke to them for some time upon the danger of their situation. Some ran away, the rest remained quiet, but none spoke. Held afternoon service at 3 o'clock. Three Canoes came over from Kororareka—Ware22, Haumia and others. After tea I went to them and had a most pleasing conversation with Haumia. Ware too much like his father rejected every word—he turned away. With Haumia however I was much delighted. I do not remember at any time any party appearing more interested. The resurrection of the body gained their attention and they expressed their delight at the idea of young and old being alike and the prospect of that eternal rest which remaineth for the children of God. They asked many questions respecting the time of our going to visit them and said they should certainly soon believe were we to go to them frequently.

Monday, 25. Returned from Rangihoua by 8 o'clock. William Lewington gave notice of his intention to quit, which was fully sanctioned.

Tuesday, 26. Employed all day at my brother's house laying stones for him. Rough coarse work. Wished that some of our friends were traying up mortar for us. Engaged a young man to finish the rigging for the Karere.

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Wednesday, 27. Removed the school house about 60 yards from its original standing towards Mr. Brown's house.

Thursday, 28. All day employed in removing school house in which we succeeded beyond expectation.

Saturday, 30. Much corn and potatoes bought—the settlement overrun with natives.

Sunday, I May. Rain all day—no service in afternoon and eveng.

Monday & Tuesday, 2, 3. Rain all day—no work. The following bills drawn on Mr. Coates:
Apl. 7£11.12.3Mr. Fairburn salary
Apl. 126.19.10J. Johnson on account
Apl. 412.10.0Mr. Kemp salary
15.7.6Mr. Baker do
24.1.0Mr. Clark do
7.10Mr. Preece do
Ex T.E.N.

Thursday, 12. Fine. Went up the Kauakaua to see the natives. Had much difficulty to stem the current owing to the late rains. My boys had erected a very good house in which we were very glad to shelter ourselves from the cold, and kindle a fire. Very many came and attended our eveng. service, behaved very well and made many enquiries. Many old men were present. At a late hour retired to rest.

Friday, 13. Spoke at all the settlements around, but few inattentive persons. Returned home by the eveng. Mr. and Mrs. Hobbs arrived from the Kerikeri.

Saturday, 14. In the morng. all assembled to witness the launch of the Karere, but at the first movement she fell off the slip, where she remained for some time. In the afternoon they were more successful and got down some considerable distance, when the slip altogether gave way and down she came upon the sand. By the assistance of boards being placed under her she was without difficulty brought down the beach; though the whole affair was a sad specimen of clumsiness.

Sunday, 15. Service as usual. At high water the Karere floated off. In the afternoon went over to Kororarika.

Monday, 16. In the afternoon tried the cutter under sail much to our satisfaction. Mr. Preece and boys from Waimate arrived to shingle in the Kitchen for the school.

Tuesday, 17. As the natives had expressed their disappointment at our not having landed at the Pa yesterday, we again sailed up this afternoon and held a long conversation with them. They had prepared a feast for our boys and behaved with great kindness.

Friday, 20. Mr. and Mrs. Hobbs returned to the Kerikeri.

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Saturday, 21. Rain. Mr. Preece finished the shingling. After dinner I went to Rangihoua to spend the Sunday.

Sunday, 22. Rain occasionally. Spoke to several natives in the Pa.

Monday, 23. Rain and wind directly against us: returned with great difficulty.

Tuesday & Wednesday, 24, 25. Heavy rain.

Thursday, 26. This morning went inland. Slept at the Aute. Old Hepatahi and all with him very careless as to the one thing needful, though attentive to us.

Friday, 27. The night very cold. At day light arose and went on to Maungaturoto and slept at Waitangi. Spoke at several places— my old friend Motoi took up his abode with us in the tent: he was conversing with the boys great part of the night, relating many an old tale.

Saturday, 28. Passed an agreeable night. At sunrise moved on for Paihia, where we arrived about 3 o'clock after a dirty and fatiguing walk. Overtook several persons at Waitangi assembling to go to Tauranga on a fighting expedition.

Sunday, 29. After service went to Waitangi. Saw Kahakaha23 and party, very much pleased with them, though many of them were out of the bush and had little communication with Europeans. None attempted to contradict our statements, but asked many pleasing questions.

Monday, 30. Commenced shingling Mr. Brown's house. Ship arrived from Port Jackson.

Tuesday, 31. The passengers came on shore.

Wednesday, 1 June. Employed at Mr. B.'s house. Captain and Mrs. Harrison came on shore.

Thursday, 2. Mr. Brown and I dined on board the Denmark Hill. Capt. Clark anchored in Elizabeth from Port Jackson. No news.

Friday, 3. A cutter ran into Rangihoua.

Saturday, 4. Kahakaha with 4 Canoes went from Waitangi to Tauranga. Titore came. Went over to Kororarika to endeavour to overtake some of the canoes, but they had passed on. Titore had endeavoured all in his power to prevent Kahakaha from moving but to no purpose. He said his relations had been killed and he must go to seek satisfaction, that it was far better that they all should die than suffer such indignities. Learnt that the Cutter was from Port Jackson.

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Sunday, 5. Much rain. Cutter sailed from Rangihoua. Heard in the evening that Warepoaka had arrived from Port Jackson, and that all his people had embarked and sailed for Tauranga24 to endeavour to surprise some canoes off that harbour. Much distressed with these circumstances. An American anchored which we concluded to be the Active. The Captain landed with whom we had much conversation: it is universally observed that the crews of the American Ships conduct themselves with that propriety which is unknown by our own countrymen in these seas.

Monday, 6. Messrs. Yate, Kemp and Davis arrived from Kerikeri. Went over to Kororarika to see Titore previous to his proceeding inland to the Hahunga. He appears for a native an amiable character and to possess a degree of dignity peculiar to himself. Observed this evening, with much delight, the natives in the Chapel by themselves, as we were all engaged. Unobserved by them I looked through a back window and saw the whole sitting in perfect silence with their eyes fixed upon the youth who was addressing them: as they were by themselves, he felt himself at full liberty and spoke exceedingly well. These meetings frequently take place.

Tuesday, 7. Occupied a considerable time with the American Captain, endeavouring to purchase some trade—too dear. In the afternoon squalls from W.

Wednesday, 8. Mr. Brown and I went to Rangihoua to see Mr. King as he had not been to the meeting. Called at Oneroa on our return, only 3 women present, the men all gone to the Hahunga.

Thursday, 9. Very fine. About 9 left for Taiamai with 30 natives or thereabouts. Met several small parties, but did not stop wishing to get to our journeys end in good time. Arrived about 3 o'clock and made all comfortable for the night. Several strange natives in attendance at our evening prayer. Had considerable conversation with them upon spiritual things. Spent a very pleasant evening.

Friday, 10. Very cloudy, every appearance of rain. Went to Owaiawai. All the natives of the place busily occupied in preparing for the Hahunga had a long conversation with Taki and his people. As this meeting may be considered as the prelude to their movement to Tauranga we spoke much upon that subject. The old man was attentive and polite. About 3000 baskets of Kumara were placed in a line occupying a quarter of a mile, 3 deep, kept in reserve for the Ngapuhi—perhaps double that quantity might be consumed in all, besides pigs.

Saturday, 11. Rain all night which continued through the day. page 181 In the afternoon shifted our quarters on account of the rain to a Rua where we were very comfortable by the aid of a good fire.

Sunday, 12. Squally all the morng. Held service with my own natives and all others who came near us, their conduct very good. In the afternoon went over Taiamai. Spoke at several places, some very attentive, others laughed exceedingly at the idea of the resurrection of the body.

Monday, 13. Fine mong. Went to Owaiawai. A great assemblage of natives, all preparing their temporary houses. Messrs. Yate, Baker, Hobbs and Parker25 there. In the eveng. conversed with some of the leading men upon general feeling of the natives relative to Tauranga. Much satisfied with all which passed. About 60 of our Natives belonging to the other Settlements assembled at evening prayers, to the great astonishment of very many who had never witnessed these things before.

Tuesday, 14. Much rain in the night, which greatly disturbed our rest in the expectation of a gale of wind. The rain continued all the forenoon. When it suddenly cleared away, we concluded that it was better to retreat homewards: Mr Yate and party went to the Waimate; I and my party to Onewero, where we slept.

Wednesday, 15. Fine. Returned home in good time. Met a messenger at Waiarue with letters from England. 4 vessels in the Bay. Active not arrived.

Thursday, 16. An American ship anchored, and a schr. In the eveng. Cap. King and the Cap. of the American called. The news from England important.

Saturday, 18. Went to Rangihoua to spend the Sabbath there.

Sunday, 19. Fine. Waikato with part of the Hikutu landed, having returned by way of Wangaruru. They brought a good report from the Southd., and we hope that peace may thereby be accomplished, as both parties appear to be afraid. After dinner went to see my old friend Te-uri-o-kana26. He appeared perfectly insensible to his state, and as hard as a stone. Returned in the eveng. to Paihia.

Monday, 20. Boys empd. in clearing the Karere of lime, by which their feet were severely burnt.

Thursday, 23. Went over to Kororarika to see the natives—not many there, but attentive. Called on Cap. King. Titore reported two vessels comg. in. The Karere sailed at dusk for Wangaroa for page 182 potatoes. The Active anchored at Rangihoua. No letters from England. Mr. and Mrs. Shepherd and family returned.

Friday, 24. My brother and I went over to Rangihoua and to the Active. The vessel full of stores.

Saturday, 25. Mr. White arrived from Hokianga.

Sunday, 26. After service went to Kororarika to see the natives. A dreadful place—the very seat of Satan. The natives very far beyond the Europeans in their behaviour. Several English men at work on Ponyer's27 boat, who retreated on our approach.

Monday, 27. The Kapotahi in the settlement respecting Waitara. Commenced mixing mortar and building chimney at the school house. Much interruption from the natives.

Tuesday, 28. At work at the chimney at the school. The Kauakaua natives here much talkg. The boys called off from their work.

Wednesday, 29. At work on the chimney at the school. The Karere returned from Wangaroa with about 300 baskets.

Thursday, 30. Landed corn and potatoes from the Karere. In the afternoon went to the Kerikeri.

Friday, 1 July. Ret'd to Paihia and resumed my work on the chimney. Rec'd a few english letters.

Saturday, 2. The Active anchored at Motuorangi from the Kerikeri. Captain and Mrs. Wright28 spent the eveng. on shore.

Sunday, 3. The Captains and four boats' crews at service.

Monday, 4. Went to Kerikeri to the Quarterly meeting.

Tuesday, 5. At close business all day settling accounts.

Wednesday, 6. Concluded by noon, and returned to Paihia much fatigued.

Thursday, 7. Engaged with bricks and mortar. Much interrupted by the arrival of two gentlemen, who brought letters of introduction from England & Port Jackson.

Friday, 8. A party up the river to obtain a mast for the Karere which could not be accomplished.

Saturday, 9. Heavy gale in the night. Commenced plastering the school, made good progress.

Sunday, 10. Fine. Several strangers at Chapel—paid considerable attention.

Saturday, 16. Employed all the week plastering the school, and page 183 today commenced building the chimneys—laborious work—tho several of the native boys now very useful and able to take our places in the dirty work.

Sunday, 17. Service as usual, after which went across the water to the natives of the Kauakaua.

Monday, 18. Empd. plastering and building chimney. Mr. Davis arrived in the evening. All well at the Waimate.

Tuesday, 19. Mr. Brown and I went to the Kerikeri: on return rec'd a note from the American ship respecting the watering on our ground, as his people had rec'd notice to quit.

Wednesday, 20. Tohitapu came about Te Rahi, who had been committed adultery with one of his wives. He was particularly desirous that they should meet at once and fight, but I requested him to wait a little as I had a very unpleasant matter to settle with the American Captain. After much talking his cause was postponed till some future day. Went on board the American ship, the Captain very angry and highly indignant that his people were prevented from watering on our ground, and demanded to know by what authority we thus acted; to which I replied, upon the authority of its being private property and that we claimed the privilege of citizens, and consequently must preserve our land sacred to ourselves. He, however, did not appear disposed to consider anything but his own convenience, and said that he had desired Pomare29 to water the ship and he should require him to go to the place in question, for which he had promised him a musket, and if that would not do he should give him two, if that would not accomplish it he would give him ten, and if that should fail he would give him something that would do. I endeavoured to have some conversation with Pomare but he was as obstinate as the Captain, and told me should proceed to the place as the tide flowed, which he accordingly did. After dinner we paid Pomare a visit at the watering place who was there with natives only. After some little conversation they left off getting water. I determined to take up my abode at the place for the night to prevent further proceedings. The Active sailed for the Kerikeri. Our boys in good spirits and we passed a very comfortable eveng. they feeling the great importance that we should be preserved from any encroachment on the part of the shipping. My boy Matiu page 184 engaged in prayer at our evening service, wherein he specially mentioned that we might be preserved from the evil communications of the Shipping.

Thursday, 21. Passed a good night, tho none slept much. The air was cold, but by the aid of a large fire we were very comfortable. At daylight Pomare's boat returned for the empty casks, which had been removed by us to the opposite shore: the natives were very civil. The Captain of the American Ship came but did not make any observation. He returned in about an hour with Pomare. In the interval Kauwiti, Hiamoe30 and Tohitapu came. The Captain departed as he came, in silence and I felt extremely thankful to our Heavenly Father who had thus protected us from insult, and had given us the victory. Our boys occupied in felling the trees around us to fill up the chasm thro' which the water flowed, to signify that none were to water there. We put up a fence across the entrance for the same purpose. In the afternoon commenced to cultivate a piece of ground adjoining in order to hold possession. The New Zealander Sch. which had been laying at Kororika shifted her berth close to the American ship. As her Captain is a known bad character, and one who attempted to pull Mr. King's nose some time ago at Rangihoua, we thought it not improbable that he had come to give the American some instruction how to act and to attempt to force his way to the water.

Friday, 22. Expected a visit from the two vessels, but happy to find that they kept perfectly quiet. Empd. cultivating at Wairuaiti— everyone in good spirits. Heard that Marupo was on his way with his party.

Saturday, 23. No appearance of Marupo. Mr. Brown and I went up to the Active, as Cap. Wright was desirous of seeing me previous to his sailing. On our return heard that Mahikai31, brother to Marupo had been here to enquire whether or not the party was to come in the morning, as it was the Ra-tapu. If they were not to come, some of us were to visit them at Waitangi. He passed on to Toe, brother to Taiwanga, and relative by marriage to the offending party from Rotorua: on approaching Toe he ran at him and caught hold of his hair. Toe had a bayonet in his hand and by accident ran Mahikai through the wrist: though the wound was not of itself of much consequence, yet it was quite sufficient to create a serious disturbance. Toe immediately gave him a blanket, a musket and the bayonet by which he was wounded, and he departed well satisfied and would not have hesitated to have had the page 185 other arm served in the same way for the sake of a similar payment. After dark the alarm was given that the natives had come from Waitangi on account of Mahikai's hand; before I could get out several muskets were discharged and a few shot passed over our heads. I took some of our young men belonging to this party and went to Waitangi to learn the reason for this nightly visit, as being altogether out of order. Old Marupo at first was very angry and used very threatening language, but he gradually grew milder and desired that some of us would visit them in the morning. Returned home at midnight.

Sunday, 24. Went to Waitangi immediately after breakfast—the mob civil; but shewed much ill will towards the Rotorua natives and persisted in having their property. They desired that some of us would go in the morng. to them and conduct them to the settlement. My brother saw them after dinner. The remainder of the day passed quietly.

Monday, 25. The natives at work long before daylight securing fences and preparing for a bustle. At sunrise Mr. Fairburn and I went to Waitangi according to their desire. After they had taken repast they moved towards the settlement. They stopt twice to consult upon the propriety of proceeding forward and I was in hopes they would have given up the design altogether; however, they continued on and made a rush when they came into the settlement but were stopped from proceeding further by Te Hiamoe, &c. After considerable noise and scolding the whole was concluded by some stirabout—as the Rotorua natives had decamped on hearing the shot fly on Saturday eveng. Their behaviour was very good. In the afternoon hearing that the natives had commenced digging our ground at Waitangi, my brother and I accompanied some of them there and spoke to them upon the subject: one man put himself in a great rage and set fire to his rush screen which surrounded his house. It was put out immediately. The rest of the natives were civil. We proposed to them to mark out a portion as a settlement for them, where the old one stood. Some approved, others did not. Took our leave of them and returned home, much wearied in body and spirit, at our various perplexities for these last six days. In the eveng. Mr. Kemp arrived.

Tuesday, 26. Several natives—Various points of business to settle with them, which occupied nearly all day.

Wednesday, 27. Settled with Hiamoe and others respecting some land in immediate connection with the settlement.

Thursday, 28. Occupied at Mr. Brown's house finishing off.

Friday, 29. Went to Ongarue with the boys to prepare land for potatoes. Commencement of an Easterly gale.

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Saturday, 30. Strong gale, heavy rain.

Sunday, 31. Much rain through the night, at daylight fine. After service went to the Wahapu, spoke to the natives there.

Monday, 1 August. Weather very squally.

Wednesday, 3. Squally, wind from Southd. In afternoon sailed in the Karere for Oruru. My eldest boy on board32. Wind fair until midnight when it headed us.

Thursday, 4. Cloudy. Strong wind and foul. Had a good shaking all day. In eveng. little wind. Worked close in shore and made good way.

Friday, 5. A pleasant night—little vessel quiet—at daylight observed several rocks very dangerous in the dark—forenoon calm— caught numbers of fish. A canoe came off in afternoon to pilot us in, pulled the cutter in to entrance of Oruru. As the tide was flowing we went in rather faster than we desired and grounded upon a very rough bottom, on the left hand going in, and as it appeared shoal water all round we were glad to haul out into deep water, where we lay quietly all night.

Saturday, 6. Fine. Mahu made his appearance this morng. having followed us in his canoe and just arrived. He raised our expectations. At low water went and examined the river, found a good place where she might lay dry. At 4.30 the tide having flowed considerably, weighed and pulled in keepg. her close to the bank by a rope and brought her into a comfortable position. Every appearance of bad weather.

Sunday, 7. Fine mong. After breakfast held service on shore, on the grass, with those natives who were near the place. They were very attentive and expressed their ignorance in these things, but strong desire that Missionaries might reside near them, through whom they might be enabled to understand. This was the first Sabbath ever observed in this place, and all had abstained from work; but without teaching all would soon forget. The settlement was too distant to visit it. Wind from Nth.—apprehensive of bad weather.

Monday, 8. Fine. No natives expected today. In the afternoon took my coat of many pockets and attired as a pedlar with samples of my trade, consisting of combs, scissors, knives, fishhooks, &c., &c, Went up the river with the flood tide in company with Mahu and some of his relatives. Hills on either side, but little wood even for fires. No cultivation for six or eight miles. At dark landed at Oruru. The natives when we landed as uncouth as any I recollect to have met with—no food offered. Had but little conversation with page 187 them as their ideas ran wholly upon trade, and some of the more knowing ones were dealing in most marvellous tales about our general mode of purchasing at our own place, and that here we expected to have their things for nothing. Trading of any kind a most unthankful office. Endeavoured to compose myself to sleep but with great difficulty.

Tuesday, 9. Passed a rough night—hard uniform ground very cold, and found ourselves close to a pigsty, the inhabitants of which made so much noise as almost to deprive us of sleep. At daylight we moved up the valley, passed through several little settlements or family residences. The soil exceedingly rich, but the hills cold, barren, and little wood excepting in the distance, which appeared to be covered with large timber. Some hills which were a few miles distant I was told separated this place from Mangamuku, one branch of the Hokianga river. The Rarawa, an extensive tribe to the North, and Wangaroa to the South. These natives have never been visited, tho with all whom I have conversed they appear a promising people and very desirous of coming under our care. Obtained a few seed potatoes and returned by the ebbtide. Taeapa33, one principal chief, brought some potatoes and corn: bought also some from another man. Having satisfied myself that not many potatoes at this place beyond what they would require for seed for themselves, I consented to their bringing corn, at which they appeared well pleased. Had some very agreeable conversation with Taeapa and his friends. He solicited hard for some of us to reside here before he died, and wished that my boy Edward might be left as a companion for his son. I promised we would converse on the subject when I returned to my friends. The Ngapuhis, he said, were attending to us because we lived among them. The last Sunday was the first they had kept here, as they were unable to know when it took place. I told them I would lay their case before the committee for consideration and we would see what could be done. In a political point of view, it will be a great mercy to this people to establish a missionary station in this quarter: they begin to see the folly of war and experience the influence we have in restraining the various tribes, and in turning their thoughts to better things; but still we have to work against every opposition, for while we on one hand warn them to lay aside their evil practices, hundreds of our countrymen are continually supplying them with the means of destruction, and thus cherishing that thirst for blood so inherent in them. But we have to look beyond this to the salvation of the soul, and in this we are not without encouragement. Their argument is page 188 true, and the Ngapuhis (the general name for all the tribes around the Bay of Islands), are surprisingly altered within these two years, for which we thank God and take courage. Wind from the East, every appearance of a gale.

Wednesday, 10. Cloudy, strong breeze from N.E. Some old women brought 24 small baskets of potatoes for a double blanket: as 28 were the number stipulated for, would not receive them. Several persons appeared very inclined to be very insolent—gave them a good scolding with which they became satisfied and quiet. This trading is the worst part of our work, for it impossible to proceed without much noise, especially with those natives who live far from our settlements. Not being acquainted with us, they manifest every feeling of jealousy lest we should overreach, and thus we are too apt to fall out for a time. In eveng. came on to rain and blow.

Thursday, 11. Strong gale through the night with constant rain. No appearance of a change. Anxious to return. The natives about us civil, but very ignorant of our manners and customs. About noon a canoe came with five baskets of potatoes for seed, and eighteen of corn. At high water considerable sea within the point, surf outside very heavy.

Friday, 12. Heavy rain from the Southd. Endeavoured to haul off into deep water, but unable. Very stormy and fresh in the river. At 4 p.m. rain ceased, and the sun refreshed us even more after such an uncomfortable season. Made preparations for hauling off at high water which was accomplished.

Saturday, 13. Fine morning. As the seas had much gone down outside, prepared for sea. At 10.30 weighed and pulled out. Much swell and no wind, the sea breaking heavily upon Te Kawa and Nukutaurua—rocks standing in a very dangerous position for vessels at night. The former bears North of the entrance to Oruru, the second N.E½.E. Mahu accompanied us some distance out. I gave him a hoe for all his attention. He promised to return the compliment in the summer in potatoes. All the natives very civil and made anxious enquiries respecting our return in the summer. At noon breeze sprang up from the S.W. Mangonui E.S.E. Ko Paeroa N.N.W. At 1.30 Paeroa and Nukutaurua N.W. Ko Te Watu N.E.E.½E. Little wind during the afternoon. At sunset abreast of Wangaroa. At 10 close to the eastermost of the Cavallies.

Sunday, 14. Calm during the night. Heavy swell from the Eastd. At 11 breeze from the Northd. At 2 p.m. entered within the heads and anchored before 5 at Motuorangi. All well in the settlement.

Wednesday, 17. Went up the river in consequence of some natives page 189 having commenced planting in our ground. Wakaria pulling up the seed potatoes upon the plea of not having rec'd any payment for the land, had a good deal of trouble with him.

Thursday, 18. Very unpleasant conversation with natives relative to our settling amongst them and taking their land. Heard that some strangers were fencing at Waitangi upon our ground without leave, at which we were much perplexed; however felt determined by the grace of God to resist these encroachments. Went up the River with Tohitapu and Pumuka. Wakaria there with several others. He danced about in good stile as we approached the place, bidding us defiance, at which we laughed heartily at him. After a good deal of talking we marked a portion of ground for him. We told all present we did not want the ground for ourselves, but for those natives who were living with us. Cap. Dean arrived from England, brought private goods, also some for the Mission: very few letters.

Friday, 19. Captain Dean called.

Saturday, 20. Capn. Dean came on shore, mentioned that the Brig at Kororarika was in a state of mutiny, but he did not appear disposed to render much assistance. Told him that he was in the Bay we should not interfere.

Sunday, 21. Cap. Dean at service. A good number of strange natives also present. Cap. Dean mentioned that 21 casks of oil had been landed from the Brig by the crew. Requested Mr. Mair to go over and talk to the natives and take Tohitapu with him. In the eveng. they returned having accomplished their object, the oil was recovered and taken on board.

Monday, 22. Mr. Hamlin arrived from the Waimate to go on board of Cap. Dean to trade. Felt it our duty to request him to go by way of the Kerikeri where was a boat kept for their specific service, that communication might not be made through us, owing to the late resolution rec'd from the Society relative to this settlement, and also from the observation of Mr. Marsden34 published in the Record for Feby. of this year. After dinner accompanied Mr. Hamlin to the Waimate: the road very much better than I had anticipated. Every one pretty well, the houses very comfortable.

Tuesday, 24.* Walked round the Settlement: situation very delightful. Took a survey of Matahongia, the portion of land mentioned by Warerahi and Patuone: some portion good but generally very sour and barren.

Wednesday, 25. Rain—could not go out. Patuone and Warenui came to speak about the land, long conversation. In the evening

* [?] 23. The dates appear to be one day out from here to 4 October.

page 190 heavy rain. Mr. Parker brought intelligence of the death of Mr. White's only child.

Thursday, 26. Fine. Returned to Paihia—pleasant journey. All well, thanks to our heavenly Father.

Friday, 27. Matiu's brother arrived from Rotorua with a young Chief from thence named Waretutu35. Much conversation with them as to the behaviour and disposition of the natives in that quarter. Generally in arms, bidding defiance to Ngapui, tho at Rotorua they were quiet and were much wishing that missionaries should be sent amongst them. They had been fighting and were still doing so on all opportunities, and were likely to continue, but if missionaries were to go there, they should then learn the good and the right way, and sit quietly as Ngapui did. In the eveng. conversed with the above Chief in company with several of our lads—very pleasing. I trust the Lord may have directed him to us for enquiry, intend to bring the question forward.

Sunday, 29. Fine. Several strange natives at service.

Monday, 30. Went up to the Kerikeri to see about some stores.

Tuesday, 31. Ret'd to Paihia.

Saturday, 4 September. Tohitapu had much objection to make to our going down at present to Rotorua, until all should be on the move for Tauranga. In the eveng. spoke to some of our boys on the objection of Tohitapu. They listened with patience, and tho very desirous to proceed, they acknowledged the propriety of the old man's remark. Messrs Hobbs, Stack and Parker arrived from Kerikeri.

Sunday, 5. Went to Kororarika and Otuiho. Several natives from Oruru at the former place, as ignorant & inanimate as the stones on the beach. Pomare and a small party was at Otuiho, their behaviour was good. Kiwikiwi spoke upon the propriety of going to his place in the Thames, having just returned from thence. The natives there had been expecting down for several weeks.

Monday, 6. Strong breezes and cloudy. Every appearance of bad weather. Messrs King and Baker arrived over land to attend our meeting.

Tuesday, 7. Some important conversation upon the state of the natives around. Mr. Clark arrived from the Waimate. Much rain in the afternoon. In the eveng. commenced the examination of the 14 chapter of Matthew.

Wednesday, 8. Fine. The brethren returned to their respective page 191 stations. All the afternoon employed at Mr. Brown's house, anxious for its completion that the school may be commenced upon the general principal. Mr. Brown has now been nearly two years on the island but hitherto unable to take all the boys from the great obstacles which have been thrown in his way. Hope that in three more weeks the school may be commenced.

Thursday & Friday, 9, 10. At work at Mr. B.'s house. It may be considered by some to be out of my place to be thus toiling at bricks and mortar, &c., &c., &c. as will partially appear by my journal, while Mr. Yate is otherwise employed, but be it remembered that family men here, have a great weight and responsibility to endure. They are dependent one upon another, and as they constantly require the assistance of their neighbours, so must they give in return. Thus are we therefore without distinction required to assist ourselves and all who may stand in need, and I trust that our children and grandchildren will behold for years to come with pleasure and admiration those exquisite pieces of work which their forefathers accomplished in the infant state of things in this land.

Saturday, 11. Rain all day. Tohitapu very unwell.

Sunday, 12. Fine. Several natives from Waitangi and elsewhere to attend divine service. Could not visit the settlement up the river, as the boat was at the Kerikeri.

Monday, Tuesday & Wednesday, 13, 14, 15. Employed at Mr. Brown's house. Tohitapu much worse: considers that he has been makutud by a Chief lately come up from the river Thames— expresses a desire to be removed into the bush where he may lay in state. Spoken to him several times upon the state of his soul, but all appears dead and insensible on these subjects.

Saturday, 18. Fine. Ship Elizabeth sailed. Mr. Stack on board. My Brother and Mr. Brown absent one at Kerikeri and the other at Rangihoua.

Sunday, 19. Fine. Went to Otuiho after service. A party of sailors came up to ask for some bibles, expressing their desire for some, not having any on board. Their deportment good. Natives attentive. Pomare and Kaka present.

Monday, 20. After school obs'd the Active coming round pt. Pocock, and haul up for the Kerikeri. Went on board. All well. Mr. Yate ret'd. Miss Williams36 passenger to assist in girls school at Paihia. The Rangihoua settlement to be removed to Tepuna, by page 192 order of the Corresping. Committee!!—French man of war37 expected. Considerable doubts in the Colony as to her intention.

Wednesday, Thursday & Friday, 22, 23, 24. Employed at the Chapel in repairing and white washing.

Saturday, 25. Rain. A treat to be enabled to get a little quiet.

Sunday, 26. Fine. In the afternoon went to Kororarika, but little attention.

Tuesday, 28. Several Chiefs came to speak respecting the letter to the King38 to become protector of this island. Much trouble with Pomare, about a small piece of land up the river.

Wednesday, 29. Emp'd gardening. Active and Karere came down from the Kerikeri. Cap. Deans mentioned disturbance on board the brig lately come from Tauranga. Tarea desirous of killing two women who were on board, supposing they had come from thence.

Thursday, 30. A serious affair nearly took place this morning but thanks be to God the evil was prevented. Two boys were brought up under charge of thieving. One of them belongs to Taewanga; not being able to ascertain the truth, he struck the boy with a spade twice and threw it at him, and chased him into my garden, and would have killed him, had not he been prevented by my boys; so greatly had the enemy taken advantage of him. In the eveng. spoke to him upon the danger of his situation and exhorted him to watchfulness.

Friday, 1 October. Emp'd in the garden. The providing vegetables an important consideration. But two potatoes each the allowance. Titore came over to speak upon the projected letter to the King. Engaged two hours and a half with him and his friends, talking upon the state of affairs. He approves of our going up to Maketu to speak to natives in that quarter. He appears well disposed.

page break
Tohitapu A well-known sketch of a famous tohunga whose name often appears in the journals. It was drawn by Henry Williams in 1832. (See page 264)

A well-known sketch of a
famous tohunga whose name
often appears in the journals.
It was drawn by Henry
Williams in 1832.
(See page 264)

Henry Williams From two sketches made about 1846 by T. B. Hutton.

Henry Williams
From two sketches made about 1846 by
T. B. Hutton.

page break
A Page from the Journals, 6 January 1832 The entry describes the expedition to Tauranga. (See page 213)

A Page from the Journals, 6 January 1832
The entry describes the expedition to Tauranga.
(See page 213)

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Saturday, 2. Was enabled to have the day generally to myself.

Sunday, 3. After service went to Otuiho, and spoke to the natives there. All very attentive. Saw Pomare and party by the side of the river. He said it would be well to believe what was said, but that we should then require him to put away his wives excepting one, which he could not do. Many women present some attentive.

Monday, 4. Rode up to the Kerikeri where I arrived by noon. Commenced business immediately after dinner. Held prayer meeting in the eveng.

Tuesday, 4. Report that the French Ship had arrived which was confirmed in the course of the day from Paihia. Sat close at business. The general examination ordered to be set aside.

Wednesday, 5. At business until near noon. After dinner rode to Paihia. Mr. and Mrs. White at the settlement from the Waimate.

Thursday, 6. My brother and I went on board the French Ship. All very polite. In the eveng. the Captain and two of the officers came on shore and took tea. They all spoke very agreeable english.

Friday, 7. The French captain came on shore with one of the officers, accompanied them up the river, but they did not appear to admire either the country or the natives, but thought the one very characteristic of the other. Mr. Brown and I dined on board.

Saturday, 8. Went to Rangihoua for the purpose of remaining over the Sunday.

Sunday, 9. Every appearance of bad weather. Very few natives at service. In the eveng. ret'd to Paihia. Very rough passage.

Monday, 10. Rain through the day. A gale from the N.E.

Tuesday, 11. Strong breezes and squally. Occasional rain through the day. The French ship sailed. After dinner went to meet the Bride and Bridegroom, on their way from the Waimate. Saw them on landing at Wauwauroa, conducted them to Paihia, in all between 40 and 50 persons. Quite an imposing appearance in this part of the world. The Bride and Bridesmaids were carried in chairs mounted on native shoulders.

Sunday, 16. After service went to Kororarika and Otuiho. Tarea in a great rage at Heke39; rest attentive.

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Monday, 17. Making preparation for the voyage.

Tuesday, 18. At noon all embarked on board our little vessel the Karere. Weighed and made sail. Light wind from the eastward, but every appearance of strong westerly wind, which soon prevailed in our favour. Rounded Motu Kokako before sunset with fine breeze— fine night.

Wednesday, 19. At daylight abreast of Wangari. In the afternoon calm for some hours. About 4 o'clock a breeze. Continued our course until 10, when we hove to fearing the small islands and rocks amongst which we should have to pass. Appearance of strong wind.

Thursday, 20. At 2 a.m. made sail. Strong breeze and cloudy, saw two dangerous rocks awash which lay direct in the course. Noon fresh breezes and squally. Heavy swell from the Eastd. Our boy who acted as Cook not approving of his title, we changed it for Doctor which relieved his mind. At 4 every appearance of bad weather and being close to Tauranga we determined to run in. Came on to rain and blow very hard. Could scarcely see Maunganui tho close to it. As we drew near we obs'd the breakers high and nearly across the entrance, with a very considerable swell. However by the good providence of God we entered safely at 5.20, and found ourselves immediately in still water to our no small joy. The night was very rough. No canoes came off. Waretutu left for Maketu over land and to return in the morning.

Friday, 21. Passed a very comfortable night, the first we were enabled to go to bed. At break of day several canoes came off, Kiharoa40 in one of them. All well behaved. All approved of our errand. At low water weighed and sailed up the river to Maungatapu. Many changes since last here. Several europeans and some new settlements. Matiu landed at Tumoetai. Rawiri41 and Ngere landed and held long conversations with natives on shore. Weather very unsettled. Wind from the eastd., expected gale from thence. Long conversation with Kaiawa and others respecting the projected movements of Ngapuhi, they were very much interested. The natives appeared very numerous and seemed to recognise in us old friends. They spoke of their numerous guns and quantities of lead and powder; each boy had two and three and men ten. They are an interesting people. I have not known of their going against any other tribes since their possession of the means of attack; but to act on the defensive. They would gladly have missionaries amongst page 195 them, not altogether for our property which would be dispersed amongst them, but for instruction. May the great head of the Church guide us in this important duty of rightly dividing our strength, so that these people may be brought under our protection, being delivered from the cruel bondage of Satan and brought into the glorious liberty of the Children of God.

Saturday, 22. Strong gale all night. No prospect of going on shore. After breakfast rain commenced and continued all day. The boys occupied themselves in repeating their catechism, and singing hymns and appeared very comfortable. We in reading and as circumstances would admit; very much more agreeable than could have been expected. At sunset wind in same quarter, but not so violent. The natives have expressed their desire that we should visit them tomorrow, which I hope we may be permitted to do.

Sunday, 23. Strong gale, wind in same quarter. Rain ceased for a short period, of which we took advantage to stretch our legs; being so cramped with the smallness of our cabin. No prospect of going on shore. The natives on the beach hauling up their canoes. About noon wind ceased and cleared up a little. A canoe came off with two baskets of potatoes for which they wanted a hoe. We reminded them of the day42. They replied they just recollected and immediately pulled away. After dinner we went on shore, when all was immediately in motion. We were conducted up the pa but the rain coming on they proposed we should adjourn to a large raupo building which would hold us all. We accordingly moved on and entered a most spacious and magnificent house about 50ft. long and 30ft. broad. All sat in order and were attentive to what we had to say; it was particularly gratifying. All appeared much interested. We spoke to them for a considerable time, and afterwards entered into conversation with them. Returned to our little bark before sunset. There are four Europeans living here to purchase flax, but none came near us. Old Karawa came on board in the evening and remained for about an hour conversing upon various important subjects. They appear to remember that we were the first who came here, and to regard us as old acquaintances, and indeed as particularly connected with them. It is doubtless an important field for missionary work and I trust ere long something may be done.

Monday, 24. Fine. Wind west. At 9 landed on our way to Maketu. Kiharoa and several other chiefs accompanying us along the road for a considerable distance. Circuitous and roads very narrow which hurt our feet very much. The latter part of the road was on page 196 the beach, which was firm and very pleasant. Kiharoa conducted us to Paroa, a beautiful spot and extensive view. Sat down to rest and spoke to the natives there. Tolerably attentive. At 5.30 arrived at Maketu. Mr. Tapsal met us, and invited us into his house. Assembled all the natives around in the evening and spoke to them, upon the love of God in our Saviour Jesus Christ. Pita43 and Rawiri each said a few words. At 10 lay down to rest much wearied.

Tuesday, 25. At daylight arose much refreshed. At 7 embarked in a canoe, and passed some distance up the river to avoid an extensive swamp, tho we had afterwards to walk through much water and mud. The country very level for many miles, but not a tree until 3.30—the latter part of the journey very uneven. We met several parties of natives who had come to welcome us. About 5 o'clock we came up to a large party sitting on the brow of a hill waiting our arrival. As we drew near they gave us the usual salutation, and immediately set up their horrid crying at meeting several of their relations who were with us. All was speedily in motion in preparation for the night and we were glad to rest for a short time. After a little refreshment we assembled all for prayer, about 200, and we severally addressed a few words to them. They were very attentive, and asked many questions. The appearance of our camp at night very interesting, presenting 13 large fires and groups of natives. Some of the Chiefs spoke of carrying potatoes for our little vessel.

Wednesday, 26. A heavy fall of rain in the night, but our friends outside did not appear much disturbed by it. Slept well and much refreshed. At daylight rose and assembled our party for prayer. Breakfasted and moved on at 7 o'clock. At noon arrived at Rotoiti much wearied by our walk over some of the worst ground I had ever travelled in the land. A road truly characteristic of the natives, as rough and wild as they are. The latter part was through a wood. We embarked in two large canoes and pulled but a short distance to Houkaka where we remained owing to the wind being very strong. A singularly situated place upon the brink of a high precipice, and their roads so dangerous that we dare not pass along them. The lake appeared to extend in various directions. A pig was brought forward in compliment to our visit and as our boys were weary, we allowed it to be killed for them. Before sunset all were assembled for evening worship: every attention was paid. None of the Natives attempted to intrude within our tent.

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Thursday, 27. A very comfortable night. At first dawn of day all in motion. Embarked as yesterday in two canoes and pulled through a winding course to Ko Hau44, the entrance of Rotorua, but could not cross the lake owing to the wind. Landed at Kopapa and breakfasted. Ko Tohite ururangi landed shortly after on his way to Maketu. After breakfast we had prayers with the natives. About noon the wind having abated considerably we again got under weigh to cross over to Mokoia, which was accomplished with very great difficulty. We were nearly swamped several times. The natives managed the canoes very dexterously and by watching the seas we landed in about an hour at Arorangi, and were met in a most gracious manner. We had an opportunity of speaking to a considerable number upon the object of our mission, to which all paid the utmost attention. After which a most sumptuous supply of food was brought forward of potatoes, kumara and fish. This being the place of Taewanga's father-in-law the chiefs addressed themselves principally to him, which gave him the opportunity of stating our desires respecting them. We afterwards passed on in the canoes to Kaiweka, where Tipetipe45 was waiting our arrival. Our reception was much the same as that at Arorangi. On landing we found all our party had taken their seats in the warm bath which was close at hand. The bath consisted of various compartments, each of a different degree of heat which was regulated by the introduction of fresh water from the lake. After the speeches were delivered welcoming us to this part of the country, we assembled for evening prayer. In the evening service chiefs came to the tent to converse, and expressed their desire that we should return to the bay of islands loaded with potatoes.

Friday, 28. Passed a comfortable night; the warm bath filled at break of day. Had a good deal of conversation with the natives upon the impropriety of men, women and children bathing together. After prayer, at which all were present, we embarked for Inemutu, and landed in about an hour; there were between 4 and 500 persons. After the ceremony of landing was over, we were conducted to the Pa, and received the usual tokens of welcome. After several chiefs had spoken, Taewanga introduced the subject of our errand. When he had concluded I was told that it was needful to make a speech, and I felt considerable satisfaction in being able to open my mind to them. In the afternoon we walked through the Pa and visited the warm baths and boiling springs in which the natives cook their food. They were very wonderful. We entered a large house in which page 198 they sleep, which was like an oven from the heat of the ground. We spoke to several parties of people during the day, who appeared well disposed to receive our message. The children at all these places seem far more numerous than in the bay of Islands. The day very hot. Pita and Ngere assembled the children to repeat the catechism, but it was not confined to them as very many men and women came also and repeated with them. After employing them as long as we felt proper, we walked to see a hot spring which possesses the quality of washing without soap. Several things were washed therein, which became perfectly clean. On a return we were presented with a baked pig and several small baskets of potatoes, which we received with a nod of the head. Before sunset assembled all for prayer. At the conclusion Matiu addressed the people in a pleasing manner, but as they expected me to say something, I spoke for a short time, but Taewanga did not wish them to disperse until he had said a word or two, as we had come a long distance, and should return in a few days. After he had concluded, several chiefs in turn arose and expressed the necessity of not allowing us to return without plenty of potatoes for our journey, for when we returned it would be said, they have no love for us. In the evening a large party came round the tent door to see us at supper and to converse upon various subjects. Their behaviour very good. They expressed great surprise at our using knives and forks, and indeed at all they beheld.

Saturday, 29. Comfortable night. Taewanga came at break of day to say that three canoes were going over to Mokoia respecting a dispute about some land. From what the natives said we deemed it well to accompany them, of which they approved. Before we landed it was agreed by all to leave the question to Taewanga and myself. We accordingly preceded the party, and communicated with the opposite party. After some angry expressions from the people of the place the question was settled. We had also a second suit to settle, each was respecting but a few square yards of land. After all was concluded the natives assembled together. We gave them a few words upon the one thing needful. Several chiefs spoke on the importance of accompanying us on our return and providing potatoes for us, otherwise the Ngapuhi would say they had no respect for us. We returned to our quarters at Inemutu about noon. After a little rest the natives came round to talk. One young man began to ask the meaning of letters. I wrote them down for him, and in half an hour he knew them all, and was teaching several outside. Numbers of others came until I had no paper left of any description on which to write a copy. At length they brought small pieces to have the letters written for them, and about 200 old and young were page 199 soon employed teaching and learning the letters with the greatest possible interest. At 3 o'clock about 150 male and female were assembled to learn the catechism. Amongst them were several old women. They afterwards returned to their letters and continued till the time of evening prayer, when I took the opportunity of speaking upon the service of the morrow, and the necessity of keeping it holy. Kept in close conversation with several until dusk. This has been I trust a day of great importance, truly gratifying and of great encouragement to us. Everything far exceeds out utmost expectations. I have neither seen nor heard anything to equal it in the land, both young and old appear to possess an interest altogether new, and I do trust the Lord will appear in their behalf to give deliverance. Accounts arrived in the evening that a Pa not far distant had been taken by Wera46 and most of the people had been killed. One had fled here to tell the tale.

Sunday, 30. Cloudy. Hoisted a sheet for a flag, a signal for Sunday, the first ever seen in this quarter. Matiu and Pita went to Rotokakahi. At 7 assembled the natives in a long house which they cleared away as it was commencing to rain. It was about 50 ft. long. They removed one partition and cut some holes to admit light and air. I was very apprehensive it might be unbearable, but did not experience any particular inconvenience, tho as full as possible. Before service commenced the boys brought their papers for me to hear them their letters. Most of them appeared to know them, and desired to know what they were to learn next. After service I addressed the natives upon the necessity of a new birth, which brought on an interesting and important conversation amongst the Chiefs generally. At noon heavy rain which continued till 3 when it cleared away. Assembled the youths for catechism. All the natives of the Pa came and appeared delighted. They afterwards repeated over their letters. At 5 we held evening service when I spoke upon the fall of man, and his salvation by Christ the light of the world. Matiu and Pita returned at dark with good report; numbers had assembled yesterday from the neighbourhood, but as no one went to them they returned in the morning. This must have been an astonishing day to these natives. Many new things have they heard today, surprising in their savage ears. May the Lord bless and sanctify the same to them.

Monday, 31. At daybreak chiefs came to request us to stop, as a page 200Teretere was on the way to see us. Agreed to remain. After prayers assembled all to School. Formed them into classes; much delighted. In the afternoon strangers observed at a distance; all turned out to meet them. Before their arrival, the Chiefs requested me to give some account of our laws, relative to theft &c. They expressed great wonder that chiefs were as amenable to the law as a poor man, and said it would not be so with them. When the strangers arrived the usual meeting took place, and several of the Chiefs spoke, some in a ferocious, others in a more quiet manner. They called on me in conclusion to make a speech, at which the strangers gazed with much surprise at hearing these things so entirely opposed to their ideas. They retired to the Pa for refreshment, while those belonging to the Pa assembled for school. Before sunset all came together for evening prayers, when I addressed them. Numbers of Natives around the Tent in close conversation with us till near ten o'clock.

Tuesday, 1 November. At break of day Chiefs came, as we were to move this morning. Obliged to shave in public to their great amusement. Called to select a place for the School. As we were about to depart we were surrounded by all and took breakfast in public. At 8, we were ready to depart. The boys who had been nominated for the school at Paihia and Kerikeri were desired to remain, as it was apprehended they might be employed to fetch firewood, or set to work, or their hair burnt when cut instead of being deposited in some sacred place. The children came for fresh lessons to the last, even after we had taken our seats in the canoe. Can we question their desire for instruction. At 8.30 left the beach after taking leave of all. They called out to give us an english cheer, which was done in good stile. Pulled to Mokoia to take in some potatoes, remained there about an hour. The boys who were with us came and repeated their letters and figures to the astonishment of all. At 1 landed on our return to Maketu at Rotoiti. We here dined, and moved on at 3. We passed on at easy rate and arrived at our former sleeping place by 6 to wait for our train. We here heard that Waretutu's life had been threatened at Tauranga. Had prayers and retired to rest.

Wednesday, 2. Rose at 4 and immediately proceeded on our journey. Pleasant travelling in the cool of the morning. At 6.30 stopped to breakfast at Te Rewarewa where we remained some time to allow our party to come up. In close conversation with our friends relative to the movement of Ngapuhi in the summer. A little after one arrived at Maketu much wet from having to wade through the swamps at the close of the journey. Not much fatigued. Mr. Tapsel asked us in to refresh ourselves. In the evening intended to have page 201 proceeded on, but as it commenced raining deferred my march until the morning.

Thursday, 3. Much disturbed all night by fleas, as our beds were laid in Mr. Tapsel's store in which a large dog was generally kept. At daybreak natives in motion, as wind had shifted in the night and prospect of fine weather. At 6.30 took leave of Mr. Tapsel, after receiving every attention from him, and commenced our journey to Tauranga, leaving several of our party behind, owing to the expressions which had been made respecting Waretutu and some of our boys. Our walk was very pleasant along the beach, which was firm. At 2 arrived in view of our little bark and was soon on board, much rejoiced to be once more on English ground. We soon forgot all our toils and sent for Kiharoa and Kaiwaiwa to explain the circumstances of the late report and also to make arrangements for our departure. They came immediately and were very civil and wished us to return to Ngapuhi and say that they had no ill will towards them, and desired peace. Wind being fair we got under weigh and worked out. Presented Kiharoa with a blanket for the care which had been taken of the Karere. Tipetipe and our party from Maketu remained on board. Ran down the coast in a short time and hove to.

Friday, 4. Fine. At daylight light winds. 3 Canoes came out of Maketu and soon put us into confusion with fetching their things and bringing potatoes. Did not receive above 15 baskets in all notwithstanding all that had been said. A breeze springing up fair, we took our leave and made sail. About 10 wind shifted to west, and came on to blow very strong. Not being able to do anything against it we bore up for Motiti, where we brought up. Continued to blow strong until midnight.

Saturday, 5. Fine morng. wind in same quarter but modt. got under weigh and worked up to the weather shore. In the afternoon sent the canoe on shore for some wood and water.

Sunday, 6. Appearance of wind from the S.E. Attempted to weigh the anchor, but found that it had hooked a rock. After much trial were obliged to slip and make sail to get under command before the breeze freshened. At 8 o'clock strong breeze from S.W., reduced sail accordingly. At 3 ran under the lee of Mayor Island in a heavy squall being able to carry sail. Close reefed the mainsail and set storm jib. As we rounded, the gale so strong that we feared we should be obliged to put back. Continued our course at sunset, the Aldermen close on the weather bow. Considerable sea which frequently broke over us.

Monday, 7. More moderate, considerable swell. At 2 Taewanga gave notice of islands ahead of which we were unaware, not having page 202 a chart on board. At daylight Barrier island ahead, pleasant breeze at S.S.W. Made all sail. At 11 wind shifted to N.W. Stood close to land in smooth water. Before sunset wind again came off the shore. Steered for the outside of Barrier island which we passed close.

Tuesday, 8. Fresh breeze from the S.W. At day light the Hen and Chickens abeam. Considerable swell. At 2 Poor Knights S.W. 20 miles. Observing that our little bark was driven considerably to leward owing to the swell, we were in hopes if possible, to run back into our former sheltered position amongst the Mercury islands. Wind increased during the eveng. and squally, at midnight brought her under treble-reefed mainsail and the head of the foresail, looking to the Lord for his protection and divine guidance in this our very critical situation, having but little water and wood and the wind prevailing hard against us. May He who holdeth the winds in the hollow of His hand so control and direct them that we may ere long be brought into our desired haven.

Wednesday, 9. Our little Karere lay to admirably well, riding over the seas like a duck, scarcely shipping a drop of water. At day light no land in sight. Fresh gale and squally. Wind S.W. No one on deck for several hours but myself. Occupied myself in serious contemplation especially called forth from the peculiar situation in which we were. At 5.30 saw land S.S.W., concluded to be Barrier island. At sunset wind the same, squalls not so heavy.

Thursday, 10. At daylight modt. sea, much gone down. Wore and made sail. At 6 every appearance of shift of wind. Saw land S.W., same seen last night. At 8 light breezes from S.E. made all sail and stood in for the land. At 10 calm, which continued until 6 o'clock, when a light breeze sprung up from N.W. Took advantage of the fineness of the day to wash and scrub the vessel above and below and also our crew and passengers. All much recovered by the eveng., yet anxious to regain the land, fearing another gale from the Westd. which might drive us out to sea.

Friday, 11. Light breezes and cloudy. At 1 a.m. wind shifted to South. At break of day caught a shark 7 feet long, with 37 young ones full grown. Barrier island S.W. about 20 miles. At 7 calm which was very tedious, as we had now exceeded our time. At noon light breeze from N.E. made all sail which carried us along in a very agreeable way. Sunset light air. At midnight squalls gathering round. Shortened sail and wind shifted to W.S.W. Stood to the southd.

Saturday, 12. Light winds and fine. Close to N.E. end of Barrier island, run in shore for the purpose of replenishing our wood and water. Sent the canoe for a cask of water, fearing further delay. Ran down the eastern shore of Barrier island in order to gain the weather page 203 shore. No appearance of natives on the island all killed or dispersed. How blessed might hundreds of families be here. There are numbers of small rivers and bays, and timber in every part of the island, and fish in greatest abundance. Saw a Bark on the Lee beam. At sunset light airs and calm.

Sunday, 13. Light airs all night. At 8 light airs from the S.E. which continued through the day, by the help of which we crossed the mouth of the Thames. In the eveng. calm.

Monday, 14. Light airs all night. In the morng. caught a quantity of fish. At 9 light airs from N.N.E. with indication of a blow. At noon strong breezes, obliged to shorten sail and bear up, as the sea was getting up, and every prospect of a gale. At 5 we rounded the north head of the Thames, and entered a small deep cove47, which was as quiet as a fish pond with trees on either side growing down to the water's edge. Anchored in 3 fms. water, which was beautifully clear, with sandy bottom which shewed the fish swimming in great numbers while the birds were singing most delightfully in the bushes. We all went on shore to stretch our legs which was of great relief. All soon at work cutting wood, gathering oisters and shooting birds We soon forgot the troubles of the day. It is a remarkable fact that all the breezes which have in any wise been favourable for us this voyage have been so light as scarcely to carry us any distance, when those against us so strong as to prevent us carrying sail. All are very weary on board, owing to broken rest, and not having had our clothes off for these 11 nights.

Tuesday, 15. A quiet and comfortable night; woke by the singing of birds. Weather gloomy. Wind as yesterday. All went on shore and prepared for a gale; kindled two large fires, and erected a tent and a shed of Nikau for the boys, which was very comfortable. About noon heavy rain, felt exceedingly thankful for the shelter afforded from the gale. Hauled our vessel on shore to scrub her bottom.

Wednesday, 16. Rain all night, exceedingly rough, yet by the aid of some large fires we were very comfortable. At day light weather cleared up. Vessel aground and would not float until the afternoon. The appearance of the sky very unsettled, clouds moving in every direction. Made every arrangement for sailing. Everyone embarked by 3 o'clock when we floated and pulled out of the Cove. But little wind until 5 o'clock, when a breeze sprung up from the Westd. At midnight abreast of Te Wara. Breeze veered and hauled. Fine night.

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Thursday, 17. Fine. At day light abreast of Wangaruru. At 1 close to Cape Brett, wind out of the bay. At 4 o'clock we determined to bear up for Wangaruru, being unable to make headway against the heavy swell from the Northd., caused by the late gale, and fearing that we might spring or carry away some of our spars. At 5 saw Thos. Kings48 boat coming along the coast from the Southd. Wind more modt. entered the Heads at Wangaruru at dusk. Weather very unsettled.

Friday, 18. After midnight came to an anchor; dispatched Matiu in our small canoe to fetch one sufficiently large to convey us to the landing place. In about an hour he returned bringing a canoe with him and 4 men to take us up the river. Arose immediately tho all greatly fatigued, and were soon prepared for our journey. Landed at break of day and commenced our march with light hearts being better able to calculate the probable time of our arrival at home. The morng. was excedingly fine and the birds were singing on every side. The walk was truly delightful, more particularly so from being released from the vessel. Yet there were many painful feelings as we passed along without meeting or seeing a single individual, tho but a few months since all this neighbourhood was in a high state of cultivation, but since Taramiti49 had been killed, his people had been compelled to fly. About 6 we halted to breakfast at the last water, partook of some chocolate but unable to take anything else. The boys cooked some fish and potatoes. About 10 we arrived at Waikari, the natives were very civil, and provided a canoe, and the tide being out it was with difficulty dragged down the river. We availed ourselves of the opportunity of laying down in the canoe to take a nap, tho a short one, as we were required to stir up the lads, who wanted to land as the wind was blowing a little fresh and walk round. We landed at the Haumi with some difficulty, and we were met immediately by some of our boys. They danced and ran about as though they had seen someone from the dead, and were about to give notice at the settlement but were prevented. We were happy to learn that all were well and were soon relieved by the sight of those whom we held most dear on earth. All much concerned on account of our delay and the Active ready to sail in the morning in quest of us. The Captain of H.M.S. Zebra50 on shore having come in quest of the French Corvette51.

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Saturday, 19. Very weary. Cap. De Sausmerez came early to consult respecting the petition sent by the natives to the King praying to be taken under the protection of England. He remained very late.

Sunday, 20. Cap. De Sausmerez came on shore before the conclusion of Service. Talked until past two upon the subject of yesterday. Truly weary. Cap. Gray arrived for England.

Monday 21. Karere in sight. Mr. B.52 and I went on board the Zebra by invitation to breakfast and to consult upon the question of yesterday, whether nor not anything could be done to the satisfaction of the natives during the stay of the Man of War. The good Captain could not come to any conclusion. He could not trust his own understanding nor anybody else. At 4 Mr. B. and I returned on shore and were much relieved by the departure of the Zebra.

Friday, 25. Went to Kororarika to see the Chiefs about the fight53. Saw only Ware rahi and Moka. Told them we should see them on Sunday and Monday. They had much to say about going to the Southd. and what should be done there, that they would kill and eat all before them. Warerahi was very busy in preparing his canoe.

Sunday, 27. Two Captains on shore to service and two boats crews after service. Mr. Brown and I went Kororarika to see the natives. All the principal Chiefs there. Conversation was favourable. Would not enter upon the great question. Told them we would see them tomorrow. Very many sailors rolling about intoxicated. What a contrast to the natives.

Monday, 28. My brother and I went to Kororarika accompanied by Tohitapu. Rewa spoke for some time for war, but afterwards more modt. Fears expressed on account of Kauwiti lest he should fall upon the women and children during their absence. Commissioned to see him in the morng. and report the result. Te Moranga came from the interior. In the eveng. natives talkg. till midnight talking over the affairs of the nation.

Tuesday, 29. Tohitapu and Te Moranga accompanied us up to the Pa at Otiiho. Found Kauwiti there. The natives had much talk together.

Wednesday, 30. Engaged all day at the school attending to the whitewashers.

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Thursday, 1 December. Engaged as yesterday. Mr. Puckey and family went to Hokianga.

Friday, 2. All the forenoon at the school attending whitewashers. After dinner went to Kororarika. Saw the Chiefs at their respective residences. Was grieved to hear some of their expressions relative to the War. They were respectful and appeared reconciled to the idea of some of us going to the Southd. Much distressed at apparent state of things. All is in agitation and ready for some desperate act. Angry feelings continually expressed and the tribes jealous of one another. True we experience but the shadow of those evils and trials which have been taking place in Europe, but these evils are desperate here nothing less than the utter annihilation of tribes is in contemplation. Were it not for the still small voice of God heard amidst all this confusion encouraging us to look to him and put our whole trust in him as our salvation we should certainly have been in despair, and consider that our strength was in vain. The Chiefs generally on the expedition are our most intimate friends, men who have distinguished themselves latterly in preserving peace, but now they appear actuated by a new spirit to work all manner of wickedness. I told them if they were strangers we should not say so much but they were our friends and relations, therefore if they determined to go we must go also. May the Lord grant that this may work for good.

Saturday, 3. Whitewashers at work at the school. Te Uri-o-kana and some of his friends paid a visit. Occupied some time with them. Afterwards Motoi, Haki and others called to speak about the Karaka54. After much hindrance they departed. Strong wind from the N.W. Could not go to Rangihoua as I desired. In the eveng. much rain.

Sunday, 4. No wind through the day but much rain. No strangers at Service.

Monday, 5. Fine. Went to Rangihoua. All well. Heard that Ururoa was on his way, stripping as he came. Sent for Warepoaka and Waikato to learn their ideas relative to movements.

Tuesday, 6. Moka came over from Kororarika with whom we had much conversation relative to the war, he was more moderate. In the afternoon Hara came over wanting to sell 2 small pigs which we refused to do as he was so bad a character. He was very angry and said no one should listen to anything we had to say.

Wednesday, 7. Cloudy, appearance of bad weather. Obs'd several page 207 canoes under sail, standg. for Kororarika which we concluded was Ururoa. Tohitapu came and urged our going over, which we immediately did. He observed on our way that we must be very urgent with the natives and not regard their objections to our interference. We walked up to the residence of Moka where we met the principal chiefs of Ngapuhi. We were rec'd in a most gracious manner very different from anything I had observed before. After talking for some time we all walked towards Ururoa with whom I had much conversation. He certainly shewed he had no great desire for fighting upon the present occasion, and appeared disposed to go or stay as the Ngapuhi might give the word. Afterwards saw Titore who came over to Paihia and remained until sunset. As he was the principal of the present expedition, it was needful to know his mind respecting our movements. He was afraid to speak in public but said before he left that the natives must proceed on, that when we approached near to Tauranga, something might be effected. Messrs. King, Baker, Davis and Clark arrived during the day to consider whether or not any step could be taken by us to check the movements of these men in their present desperate affair.

Thursday, 8. After hearing everything which could in any way bear upon the question before us, we concluded that a sufficient opening presented itself for us to act: That it would be our duty that some of our body should accompany the expedition and influence the natives by any means in our power. The latter part of the day occupied in other questions of a public nature.

Friday, 9. Rain till 4 p.m. All former part of the day engaged with natives.

Saturday, 10. Ururoa left Kororarika with his fleet to the Southd. to wait for the main body. The boys repairing the bank with stones which had suffered much from the sea in some of the late gales. In the afternoon Tohitapu ran into the house considerably agitated, and said we must proceed immediately to Kororarika as Titore and Tarea were fighting. My brother and I accompanied him. Before we could leave the beach a great gun and a volley of musketry were fired. We found the natives in much confusion, especially the principals. Several persons said we must remain all night to keep the peace, as it was expected that Titore would set fire to his houses which would be a signal for a general battle. With Tarea we could do nothing. Titore expressed his determination to go inland, which we were glad to hear as we hoped thereby all would come to naught. A Schr. arrived from England. No news. Not a paper to be seen.

Sunday, 11. Passed a comfortable night on the beach with these people, a bundle of sticks for my pillow. Tarea in a sour mood, would not listen to any terms. After some time we returned to page 208 Paihia to service. The three Captains and two boats' crews attended. After dinner went over to Kororarika by appointment to see how matters were going on. Titore had taken his departure soon after our leaving in the morng. and had expressed his determination to go on by himself to Tauranga. The natives full of the transaction of yesterday. Had many fears as to the result of these things.

Monday, 12. Boys empd. about the bank. Heard that Titore continued in the neighbourhood.

Tuesday, 13. Three canoes came over from Kororarika in which were Tarea, Rewa, Moka and others. Prepared breakfast for all with five baskets of potatoes and some stirabout for the chiefs. Rewa appeared in full spirits, and all seemed disposed to be very polite. Their language was now totally altered and they desired that both the vessels might go in company with the fleet of canoes. Not a word was mentioned about killing and eating their enemies but all for peace should the opposite party be disposed. I could not but praise the Lord for having effected so great a change. Day and night have our hearts been lifted up to him, that he might confound their wicked imaginations and bring their devices to naught. This great effort of Satan shall doubtless redound to the glory and praise of God and the Redeemer the holy one of Israel. I conveyed Rewa to Kororarika in my boat for the purpose of some more private conversation, and was truly gratified to find that the plan of proceeding was in every respect what I could have wished. Tohitapu determined to prepare his canoe as soon as Ngapuhi had come to the present conclusion. In the afternoon Ripi55 brought a letter from Mr. Davis to request that he might be received on board the Active and accompany the expedition, as he had been threatened by some tribes to be stripped on their return should he not shew himself amongst them.

Wednesday, 14. All very busy in preparation for the Taua and at work on the bank.

Thursday & Friday, 15, 16. Boys empd. as yesterday.

Saturday, 17. Kauwiti arrived in the morng. wishg. to be received on board the Active when she went to the Southd. as the natives had threatened to strip him on their return if he did not appear amongst them. My brother and I went to Kororarika. I saw Warerahi and Tarea, our conversation wholly upon the war. In eveng. strong breeze and rain.

Sunday, 18. Fine with strong breezes. After service my brother page break
Henry Williams's House at Paihia From a sketch by Henry Williams, probably made soon after he moved there in September 1830.

Henry Williams's House at Paihia
From a sketch by Henry Williams, probably made soon
after he moved there in September 1830.

Mrs Henry Williams Formerly Marianne Coldham (1793–1879), she was married on 20 August 1818.

Mrs Henry Williams
Formerly Marianne Coldham
(1793–1879), she was
married on 20 August 1818.

page break
William, brother of Henry Williams

William, brother of Henry Williams

page 209 and I went to the Wahapu to the natives and Utuiho. Te Uri o Ngongo very indifferent. At latter place attentive.

Monday, 19. Mr. Yate arrived from the Waimate.

Tuesday, 20. Several natives arrived to be present at our meeting. Mr. Kemp and Mrs. Chapman arrived. At 3 held our service. In the eveng. the European children took tea together at Mr. Brown's. The native boys and girls busy in making baskets &c. for tomorrow.

Wednesday, 21. At daylight all in motion. At 9 assembled for examination. Chapel well filled. After prayers natives were examined, boys outside, girls within until 11 o'clock, the english children until 1 o'clock. At 2 all belonging to the school and several chiefs were served with baskets of potatoes and pork and a roll of bread. In the evening each had tea and a small cake. The work of the girls was of the first order. Each produced something. All passed off well.

Thursday, 22. At 9 o'clock assembled the Schools for the distribution of the prizes. Nearly all of which fell to the girls.

Friday & Saturday, 23, 24. Preparing for my departure.

Sunday, 25, Christmas day. After service went to Kororarika, but could not command the attention of any. Several desired to speak upon the movements of the Taua but I requested them not. Numbers of sailors rolling about the beach in a most disgraceful state, using most horrid language.

Monday, 26. Went up to the Kerikeri. The war canoes at the entrance of the river stopt by wind. Mr. Kemp concluded to accompany us to Tauranga. Called on the fighting party on my return. All very civil expecting to move to Kororarika in the morng. On landing at Paihia Tohitapu informed me that we must be ready immediately as the armament would proceed in a day or two.

Tuesday, 27. Fine. Canoes obs'd pulling to Kororarika. Went over, conversed with all and returned by noon. Many applications to deposit the great guns in the Active.

Wednesday, 28. Most of the chiefs came over to call, hindered by them all day, very importunate. In the evening Tohitapu became very troublesome wishing to take a slave from the service of Mr. Brown who had been redeemed. The old man was very insolent and did not return the slave.

Thursday, 29. Tohitapu in same humour, and came to the house with a small staf in his hand, to drive out the wife of the slave he wanted who had taken shelter with us, as Mr. Brown was out of the way. I was obliged to turn him out. In the afternoon went to Kororarika to converse with the chiefs. On the return learnt that Marupo had dispatched a slave within the Settlement who was a reputed thief. To the killing of the man we could not say much tho page 210 Mr. Fairburn had endeavoured to redeem him with a pair of blankets, but the circumstance of his being killed so close to us was regarded by all as a sacrilege.

Friday, 30. Fine. The leading men of Ngapuhi brought their sea stock of fern root and potatoes to the Active, and some of their chests to lighten their canoes. This we felt our duty to comply with, in order to maintain an influence over them. Considering that they had declined the contest of putting their guns and ammunition on board, I felt much satisfaction in our being able to accommodate them in this particular. The Chiefs behaved very well and partook of an amazing breakfast provided by Mrs. Wright. A large party of natives of various rank sat down in our entrance room or hall, talkg. politics and regaling themselves with stirabout and potatoes for several hours. At times all talkg. together. Necessitated to pay them considerable attention. Hindered much all day with various natives. Tohitapu came early to settle our difference and make peace. He said that if I asked him to go, he would go with his canoe, but otherwise he could not. The ship Nelson arrived. In short time Cap. Grey and her Captain came on shore to inform us that Cap. Davey her former Captain had died on Tuesday, and that they wished to bury the corpse here, which was accordingly attended to at sunset. On the arrival of the boats we learnt that a disturbance had taken place between the crew of the Nelson and the natives, who crowded on board immediately on her coming to an anchor. The crew became intoxicated with rum supplied from Europeans at Kororarika in the absence of the Captain. One of them struck Rewa several times, and at length caught up a hammer, upon which the natives rose and commenced plundering and before assistance could be afforded had cleared nearly all the movable things on board. Mr. Mair was fortunately at hand, and persuaded the Chiefs to drive the people from the ship.

Saturday, 31. Titore came over to deposit his potatoes on board the Active. He related the disgraceful conduct he had witnessed on board one of the Ships last night, the Cap. and the Mate fighting until they could not stand. He endeavoured to separate them several times, but was prevented by other masters mates &c., &c., &c. Several canoes moved off this morng. from Kororarika, one of them upset, by which circumstance several casks of powder was wet. This will be a material feature in this present war, as it will be regarded as a bad omen. Mr. Davis arrived this afternoon to see us depart.

1 To give assistance to the Wesleyan missionaries at Mangungu.

2 In this month there was fighting going on at Mangakahia on the Upper Wairoa betweent the Kaipara people and the Ngati-Tawaka of the Bay of Island, which Messers. Baker and Shepherd tried to prevent without succes. [See C. Baker, Journal.]

3 Hara, a chief and tohunga of Ohaiewai.

4 Ngaro, a chief of Hokianga.

5 Tirarau, principla chief of Northern Wairoa. “A mild but determined man— a lion when roused” [Butler]. He signed the “Declaration of Independence” [1835] and he and his younger brothers, Taurau and Te Roha, signed the Treaty of Waitangi.

6 James Preece joined the C.M.S. in the Bay of Islands in 1829. He served at Puriri, Kauaeranga and Herewaka. In 1847 he opened a station at Ahikereru in the Urewera. He married Mary Ann Williams in 1833.

7 This was a letter sent by Captain Davids of the Nelson couched in violent terms, which Clarke sent unopened to Henry Williams. Davids died in December 1831 and was buried by the Rev. William Williams. [Clarke, Journal, 21 February 1831.]

8 The Karere, a cutter built at Paihia by Gilbert Mair. She was not a sea-going vessel, but was built mainly for the purpose of procuring supplies from native settlements, and was therefore of very light draught.

9 Catherine, who married the Rev. Octavius Hadfield.

10 See Marsden L. & J., p498; Smith, Wars, p426ff.

11 Thomas Chapman and his wife arrived in New Zealand in July 1830 as a catechist under the C.M.S. He accompanied Henry Williams in the exploratory tour of the Thames, and was stationed there. Later he established the mission station at Te Koutu, Rotorua, which was sacked during Te Waharoa's attack in 1836. He re-established the work on Mokoia Island and later at Te Ngae, where he lived for many years. He was ordained by Bishop Selwyn in 1844.

12 Jones and Walker, a Sydney firm with agents in many parts of New Zealand as well as whaling stations.

13 Morunga.

14 This proposed expedition was to obtain utu for Te Haramiti's defeat at Motiti Island in 1831. The taua was ready to depart when Moka “nearly blew his hand off”, and this ill omen caused them to postpone the expedition.

15 Rewharewha, also known as Ururoa.

16 William J. Lewington, master of the Karere and Columbine. He later entered into partnership with Busby and Gilbert Mair in a timber industry at Ngunguru.

17 Hihi, a well-known chief of the Taiamai, whose pa was about three miles from Waimate. Taking part in many of the battles of his time, he was one of the chiefs involved in the “Girls' War”, and was responsible for the death of Hengi. [Marsden L. & J., pp457, 459.]

18 Kuki, a Waimate chief, killed by accident in July 1832. “A quiet well behaved man and much respected by us all.” [Entry for 21 July 1832.]

19 Wata, an old chief of Takou.

20 Motiti Island in 1831.

21 Mata, a chief of the Uri-o-hau hapu of Ngati-Whatua, who lived at Mangakahia. This hapu occupied the northern Wairoa River and were neighbours of the Ngapuhi, with whom they were united in blood ties through inter-marriage. Tirirau, Parore and Moetara also belonged to this hapu.

22 Ware, principal chief of Oruru.

23 Kahakaha, one of Hongi's warriors. He was shot at the Whakatere fight near Waimate in Heke's war against the pakeha in 1844. [Maning, Heke's War in the North; Smith, Wars, p192f.]

24 In a small cutter in which he had come from Port Jackson. He took thirty men with him. [Smith, Wars, p438.]

25 Mr. Parker arrived in Hokianga in the 1820s, and for a time boarded with the Rev. W. White. He had some association with the Wesleyan missionary John Hobbs. In 1840 Edward Parker bought land at Whanganamu, and in a map of Heke's war “Parker & Co.” are shown as being established at “Kaka Pt”, which is now known as Te Karaka. [O.L.C., 67-b/122–4; 307/706. G.B.P.P., no. 448.]

26 Te-uri-o-kanae, the chief of Rangihoua who signed the deed transferring the land at Rangihoua to Marsden for the establishment of the mission.

27 John Poyner was a notorious publican at Kororareka, suspected of being a runaway convict. In 1835 Busby appealed to Governor Bourke for instructions on how to deal with Poyner's establishment.

28 Captain Wright, the captain on the missionary schooner, Active. In 1832 he with his wife and two step-daughters went to live at Omata, which lies between Okiato and Te Wahapu, where he grew wheat and vegetables.

29 This chief, Pomare, was a nephew of Pomare I, whom he succeeded in 1826. Taking the name of Pomare in order to remind his followers of their duty to take revenge against the Waikato tribes for the defeat of his predecessor, he was nearly always at war with the other Ngapuhi chiefs. In 1830, as utu for the death of Hengi in the “Girls' War”, he agreed to the ceding of Kororareka to Ururoa. In 1837 in a fight between his people and those of Titore, he killed Titore. He collected toll from the shipping at Otuihu until the coming of British authority. An overbearing and dissolute man, but later in life became a Christian.

30 Hiamoe, a relative of Te Koki, who lived at Kawakawa.

31 Mahikai, younger brother of Marupo.

32 Edward Williams, the eldest son of Henry Williams, who was born in England in 1818.

33 Tarepa, one of the principal Rarawa chiefs.

34 See Record, February 1831.

35 Wharetutu a young chief sent by Pango of Rotorua to ask for a missionary. Henry Williams sailed on 18 October for Maketu en route to Rotorua, in company with Chapman and Taiwhanga.

36 Miss Mary Ann Williams, no relative of Henry Williams, was born at Bristol, and went to Australia in 1828 with her mother to join her step-father, a Mr. White, then at Parramatta. For three years she had charge of the school of industry at Parramatta, and was then persuaded by Marsden to come to New Zealand to take the place of Miss Hart who was lost in the Haweis. She married James Preece on 25 January 1833. [Preece Papers, Auckland Public Library.]

37 This was the French discovery vessel La Favorite, commanded by Captain Laplace, which anchored in the Bay in October 1831. Much excitement was caused by the expectation of this visit because of the rumour that the French were planning to annex New Zealand. The news was alarming enough to cause the New South Wales Government to order Captain de Saumarez of the ship Zebra to sail to the Bay of Islands to investigate, and, if he found the French to have taken possession, to lodge a protest on the grounds of prior possession by Britain. When he arrived, he found that Laplace had stayed for only a few days to rest his crew. [Lindsay to Goderich, 4 November 1831, H.R.A. I. xvi. 442; Granville to Palmerston, 23 March 1832, H.R.A. I, xvi. 578–9.]

38 This was a petition to King William IV sent through the Rev. William Yate by way of the Colonial Secretary of New South Wales in November 1831. It asked that the King should become the “friend and guardian of these Islands” to protect them from unscrupulous Europeans and from “the tribe of Marion”, i.e., the French, who were so called after the visit in 1772 of Marion du Fresne', which resulted in disastrous consequences for both Maoris and French. The Maoris did not forget the French retaliation for the massacre of du Fresne and his crew, and this memory was reflected in the petition. [See L. G. Kelly, Marion du Fresne at the Bay of Islands.]

39 This is the famous Hone Heke, who rebelled against the British in 1846. He was a Ngapuhi chief of high rank and a distinguished warrior. For a time he lived at Paihia with Henry Williams, was educated by the missionaries and at his baptism took the name of Hone. A troublesome youth, he was for a time an earnest Christian, but his dislike of pakeha encroachment on Maori customs and manners made him rebellious. He levied tribute on travellers through his district of Puketona. In 1837 he went to Kaikohe and from that base made his successful forays against the flagstaff at Kororareka. British armed forces attempted without success to defeat him at Ohaiewai, but succeeded at Ruapekapeka. He died in 1850. [For a full account, see T. Lindsay Buick, New Zealand's First War; James Cowan, The New Zealand Wars, vol I, pp14-87.]

40 Kiharoa, chief of Ngaiterangi, whose pa was at Maungatapu, a peninsula in the Tauranga Harbour. He was killed by the Ngati-Whakaue at the storming of the tumu in 1836.

41 Rawiri, the baptized name of Taiwhanga. Rawiri is the Maori way of pronouncing “David”.

42 Sunday.

43 Pita, the Maori transliteration of “Peter”. This man was one of Henry Williams's converts, of whom he expected much. He settled in Rotorua where his conduct greatly disappointed missionary hopes.

44 Ko Hau, the channel joining lakes Rotorua and Rotoiti.

45 Tipetipe, a chief of Rotorua.

46 Te Wera, one of the greatest of Hongi's chieftains, in 1823 accepted an invitation to live at Mahia Peninsula as the protector of the Ngati-Kahungunu. A clever strategist and courageous warrior, he defeated many invaders and enabled the Ngati-Kahungunu to consolidate themselves in Mahia and to reoccupy the Heretaunga plains. Greatly influenced by the missionaries he achieved a reputation for wisdom and magnanimity.

47 Little Omaha. The modern township here is known as Leigh. Omaha is still the name of the coastal areas. The cove, which is situated just south of Cape Rodney, was a favourite harbour refuge of Henry Williams on his southern journeys.

48 Thomas King was a carpenter who worked for the mission.

49 Te Haramiti.

50 H.M.S.Zebra “arrived from Port Jackson in quest of the French Ship of War having heard that she had visited this port and had taken possession of these islands in the name of the King of France.” [W.W., Journal, 15 November 1831.]

51 La Favorite.

52 The Rev. A. N. Brown.

53 The projected expedition to Tauranga. “The fight” is a traslation of taua much used by the missionaries and early settlers. Both the Maori word and the translation mean a “war party” and are used whether the “fight” is a mere local skirmish or a full-scale tribal war.

54 Pakaraka, purchased from Hake [see entry for 20 August 1832]. Henry Williams bought this land for his children to provide employment for them when they came of age. There was no other method of securing their future. Pakaraka became the home of Henry Williams after his dismissal from the C.M.S. in 1849.

55 Ripi was a chief of Mawe, and was related to Ururoa. He was baptized as a Christian at Waimate in 1832, when he assumed the name of Nicholas Broughton, the Maori form of which is Paratene.