The New Zealanders at Gallipoli
A Gallipoli Diary
A Gallipoli Diary.
War has many phases. Within the compass of a volume such as this, it is not possible to describe in detail all those events bearing on the subject of the Gallipoli campaign. Neither is it possible—though the temptation is great—to deal with the glorious achievements of our silent Allied Navies, and the accomplishments of our heroic French, British, Indian and Australian comrades.
The following diary has been compiled so that the bearing of all the multifarious happenings:—naval, military, and political—may be seen in their proper setting in regard to the campaign.
|June||28.||Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand at Serajevo.|
|July||28.||Austria declared war on Serbia.|
|30.||Preliminary arrangements made in New Zealand for a volunteer Expeditionary Force.|
|Aug.||2.||Germany declared war on Russia. Germans entered France. Russians entered Germany.|
|3.||Germany declared war on France.|
|4.||Britain declared war on Germany.|
|5.||“Goeben and “Breslau” at Messina, Italy.|
|7.||The New Zealand Government cabled to the Imperial Government offering the services of an Expeditionary Force.|
|8.||British Expeditionary Force landed in France.|
|10.||“Goeben” and “Breslau” reported at Constantinople.|
|12.||Services of N.Z.E.F. accepted by Imperial Authorities.|
|15.||Samoan Force of 1350 New Zealanders and four guns sailed.|
|28.||German Samoa surrendered.|
|Sept.||24.||Main Body embarked on transports.|
|25.||Force ordered to await a more powerful escort.|
|Oct.||14.||“Minotaur” and “Ibuki” arrived in Wellington Harbour.|
|15.||Main Body again embarked on transports.|
|16.||Convoy sailed from Wellington.|
|21.||Arrived at Hobart.|
|22.||Left Hobart for Albany.|
|28.||Arrived at Albany.|
|Nov.||1.||Australian and New Zealand convoy left Albany.
British Naval defeat at Coronel.
|2.||Martial law proclaimed in Egypt.
First shelling of the Dardanelles Forts by French and British Squadrons.
|5.||Britain and France officially declared war on Turkey.|
|9.||H.M.A.S. “Sydney” destroyed the “Emden” at the Cocos Islands.|
|13.||Convoy crossed the Equator; the “Hampshire” joined the convoy.|
|15.||Arrived at Colombo.|
|17.||New Zealand transports left Colombo for Aden.|
|25.||New Zealand transports arrived at Aden.|
|26.||Combined Australian and New Zealand convoy left Aden for Suez.|
|28.||Received wireless to prepare for disembarkation in Egypt.|
|30.||Arrived at Suez.page 326|
|Dec.||1.||New Zealand ships passed through the Suez Canal.|
|3.||Commenced disembarkation at Alexandria.|
|4.||First troop train arrived at Helmieh station for Zeitoun Camp.|
|8.||German Naval defeat at the Falkland Islands.
Australian Light Horse Brigade and Ceylon Planters Rifle Corps attached to N.Z.E.F.
|12.||British Section trained on Salisbury Plain left Southampton for Egypt.|
|13.||Lieut. Holbrook in BII. torpedoed the “Messoudieh” in the Dardanelles.|
|14.||Second Reinforcements left New Zealand.|
|18.||18. Proclamation of a British Protectorate in Egypt; the Khedive Abbas deposed.|
|19.||High Highness Prince Hussein proclaimed Sultan of Egypt.|
|23.||March of N.Z. Troops through the streets of Cairo.|
|24.||British Section arrived at Zeitoun Camp.|
|25.||Christmas Day spent on the Desert.|
|Jan.||18.||Division now styled the “New Zealand and Australian Division.”|
|25.||N.Z. Infantry Brigade ordered to Suez Canal.|
|26.||Infantry Brigade left Zeitoun for Ismailia and Kubri.|
|Feb.||1.||Advance parties 4th Aust. Inf. Bde. arrived at Zeitoun.|
|3.||Turks attacked Suez Canal. New Zealanders engaged; one man died of wounds and one wounded.|
|14.||Third Reinforcements left New Zealand.|
|19.||Naval attack on the forts at the entrance of the Dardanelles.|
|26.||N.Z. Infantry Brigade returned from Suez Canal to Zeitoun.|
|March||18.||End of Dardanelles Naval attack. “Queen,” “Irresistible” and “Bouvet” sunk.|
|26.||Third Reinforcements, consisting of 63 officers and 2417 other ranks arrived at Zeitoun.|
|29.||Inspection of Division by Sir Ian Hamilton.|
|April||9.||N.Z. & A. Division, less mounted units, entrained for Alexandria.|
|10.||First transports left for Mudros.|
|15.||Transport “Lutzow” with Divisional Headquarters on board arrived in Mudros Harbour.|
|17.||Fourth Reinforcements left New Zealand.|
|24.||French, British, Australian and New Zealand transports left Mudros Harbous.|
|2.||French landed at Kum Kale.
British landed at Cape Helles.
A. & N.Z. Army Corps landed at Anzac Cove; 3rd Australian Infantry Brigade forced a landing at dawn.
N.Z. Divisional Headquarters and details ashore at 10 a.m.: Auckland Battalion all ashore by 12 noon; No. 1 Field Company N.Z. Engineers and Canterbury and Otago Infantry came ashore during the afternoon.
Wellington Infantry landed during the night.
|26.||6 a.m. two guns of N.Z. Howitzer Battery landed and came into action.
Turkish counter attacks beaten off at Anzac.
|27.||2nd Battery N.Z.F.A. landed at 3 a.m.
Heavy attack against centre and Walker's Ridge beaten off 9.30 a.m.
|28.||Portsmouth and Chatham Battalions (Royal Marine Brigade) arrived 6 p.m.
No. 2 Company Divisional Train arrived at night.page 327
|April||29.||Heavy Turkish attacks all along the Anzac Line.
A Naval Brigade (Nelson and Deal Battalion) arrived at night.
|May||2.||Turkish observation post destroyed at Lala Baba by New Zealanders.|
|2/3.||Our attack at head of Monash Gully failed.|
|3.||Turk warship in straits fired on transports; “Annaberg” hit.|
|4.||Australian attack on Gaba Tepe beaten off.|
|5/6.||N.Z. Infantry Brigade and 2nd Australian Brigade left for Cape Helles.|
|6.||3rd Reinforcements arrived Anzac—sent down to Helles.
Combined French, British and Colonial Forces commenced attack on Krithia.
|7.||New Zealanders in support of 29th Division.
Sinking of “Lusitania” in the Atlantic.
|8.||Great attack on Krithia not successful.|
|10.||Australians at head of Monash Gully attacked Turks, but withdrew.|
|12.||N.Z. Mounted Rifles (1500 men) arrived at Anzac to fight as Infantry.
Gen. Chauvel with 1400 men of the Australian Light Horse arrived.
|14.||H.M.S. “Goliath” sunk at mouth of straits.
Queenslanders made a sortie from Quinn's Post.
|15.||General Birdwood slightly wounded in the head at Quinn's Post.
General Bridges mortally wounded.
|16.||6-inch Howitzer with R.M.L.I. crew arrived in support of the Division.
Machine Gun detachment Otago Mounted Rifles arrived.
|17.||2nd Australian Infantry Brigade returned. 3 guns of 2nd Battery N.Z.F.A., man-handled up to Plugge's Plateau.|
|18.||Heavy Turkish attacks.
German Taube flew over Anzac.
|19.||Turks fail to drive A.N.Z. Corps into the sea.
N.Z. Infantry Brigade returned from Helles.
|20.||Otago Mounted Rifles (dismounted) arrived.
Turks first ask for an armistice.
|24.||Armistice Day to bury dead.|
|25.||H.M.S. “Triumph” torpedoed off Gaba Tepe.|
|27.||H.M.S. “Majestic” torpedoed off Cape Helles.|
|28.||Late at night Turks fire mine in front of Quinn's Post.
Canterbury Mounted Rifles take “Old No. 3 Post.”
|29.||Attack on Quinn 's Post—Major Quinn killed.
Major Bruce, 26th Indian Mountain Battery killed.
|31.||Turk blockhouse blown up in front of Quinn's by two sappers.|
|June||3.||2nd Field Company, N.Z.E., arrived.|
|4.||Slight advance made at Cape Helles.
Canterbury Infantry raided from Quinn's Post late at night.
|5.||Another sortic against German Officers' Trench opposite Courtney's post.|
|7.||Fourth Reinforcements arrived Anzac Cove.
Sortie from Quinn's Post night of 7/8th.
|8.||First Monitor appeared off Anzac.|
|10.||Scouting parties of N.Z.M.R. driven back to No. 2 Post.|
|12.||4.5 Howitzer taken from Howitzer Gully up to Plugge's Plateau.|
|21.||French captured the Haricot Redoubt at Cape Helles.page 328|
|June||28.||A marked advance made in the Helles sector.|
|29/30.||Turks again unsuccessfully endeavoured to drive the infide's into the sea. The last Turkish attack on Anzac.|
|July||2.||Determined Turkish attack at Helles unsuccessful.|
|4/5.||Another heavy attack beaten off the British at Cape Helles.|
|10.||Turks at Cape Helles asked for Armistice to bury their dead. Armistice refused.|
|11.||N.Z. Hospital ship “Maheno” left Wellington.|
|12.||General Masnou, commanding the 1st French Division at Helles, mortally wounded.|
|31.||200 men of the 11th West Australian Battalion took Turkish trenches opposite Tasmania Post.|
|Aug.||3.||13th (New Army) commenced landing at Anzac.|
|5.||Fall of Warsaw.|
|6/7.||British delivered holding attack at Cape Helles.
Australians made heroic attack at Lone Pine, Quinn's Post and Russell's Top.
Old No. 3 Post retaken and Table Top and Beauchop's Hill taken by N.Z.M.R.
Damakjelik Bair captured by Left Covering Force.
|7.||New landing at Suvla Bay before dawn.
Rhododendron Spur in the hands of New Zealanders.
|8.||New Zealanders storm Chunuk Bair.
New Army remains inactive at Suvla.
Fifth Reinforcements reach Anzac and go into the firing line.
|9.||Ghurkas reach the Saddle between Hill Q and Chunuk Bair.
New Zealanders cling to the shoulder of Chunuk Bair; relieved at night by New Army Troops.
|10.||New Army Troops driven from Chunuk Bair by Turkish counter attack.|
|11.||Advance from Suvla definitely held up.|
|14.||Sixth Reinforcements left New Zealand.|
|21.||First attack on Hill 60.
Italy declared war on Turkey.
|26.||“Maheno” arrived off Anzac.|
|27.||Battle renewed for the possession of Hill 60.|
|Sept.||28.||New Zealanders held on to and consolidate their position on Hill 60.
Troops go to rest camp at Sarpi.
|19.||Von Mackensen renewed attack on Serbia.|
|20.||Bulgaria Treaty with Turkey announced, thus opening the Balkan corridor.|
|29.||British and Indian troops enter Kut-el-Amara.|
|30.||10th (Irish) Division left Suvla for Salonika.|
|Oct.||3.||2nd French Division left Helles for Salonika.|
|7.||Britain offered Cyprus to Greece.|
|9.||Belgrade captured by Austro-Germans.|
|11.||Lord Kitchener asked Sir Ian Hamilton the estimated cost of evacuation.|
|12.||Sir Ian Hamilton replied that evacuation was unthinkable.|
|14.||In the House of Lords, Lord Milner and Lord Ribblesdale urged the evacuation of Gallipoli.|
|15.||Britain declared war on Bulgaria.|
|16.||Lord Kitchener telegraphed recalling Sir Ian Hamilton.|
|17.||Sir Ian Hamilton issued his farewell order.|
|20.||General Munro, in London, received instructions to proceed to the near east and take over command of the M.E.F.|
|30.||General Sir Charles Munro first visits the Peninsula.|
|23.||Wreck of Marquette—10 nurses drowned.page 329|
|Nov.||2.||4th Australian Infantry Brigade arrived from Sarpi Rest Camp.|
|6.||Nish captured by the Austro-Germans.|
|10.||N.Z. Mounted Rifles arrived from Mudros Rest Camp.|
|13.||Lord Kitchener visited Anzac.|
|13.||Mr. Winston Churchill resigned from the British Cabinet.|
|17.||Lt.-Col. Braithwaite, D.S.O., assumed command of N.Z. Infantry Brigade.|
|22.||Batle of Ctesiphen.|
|24.||Period of silence ordered: lasted 72 hours.
Major General Russell took over N.Z. and A. Division.
|26.||Major General Godley assumed command of Army Corps.|
|27/28.||Commencement of the Great Blizzard.|
|Dec.||3.||General Townshend besieged at Kut-el-Amara.|
|8.||General Munro ordered General Birdwood to proceed with the evacuation of Anzac and Suvia.|
|10/11.||All sick, wounded, surplus troops, vehicles and valuable stores removed.|
|12.||Announced at Anzac that a winter rest camp would be formed at Imbros. Surplus guns removed.|
|15.||Detailed orders issued for the evacuation.|
|16.||All ranks were warned of the impending operations.|
|19.||The last night of the evacuation of Anzac and Suvla.|
|20.||Evacuation of Anzac and Suvla completed by daylight.
Troops disembarked at Lemos.
|21.||Brig.-Gen. F. E. Johnston returned to Mudros and took over N.Z. Infantry Brigade; Lt.-Col. W. G. Braithwaite proceeded to Egypt to take over N.Z. Rifle Brigade. Col. E. W. C. Chaytor took over N.Z. Mounted Rifle Brigade.|
|25.||Christmas Day mostly spent at sea on transports returning to Egypt. Troops transferred to Egypt between December 21 and 31.|
|Jan.||9.||Evacuation from Cape Helles completed.|
|Sept.||29.||Surrender of Bulgaria.|
|Oct.||31.||Surrender of Turkey.|