Street Nomenclature and Place Names
Street Nomenclature and Place Names.
Abel Smith Street, Te Aro, was named after John Abel Smith, Esq., M.P., an enthusiastic director of the N.Z. Company. Te Aro stream meandered through sections 64 and 48; crossed the street about where the large elm tree grows that was planted by Colonel Reader (about 1874), and continued its course through sections 92 and 119. This stream is shown on Fitzgerald's map, 1843. Mr. Abraham Hort, according to the Burgess roll, was resident in 1843.
Adelaide Road, Newtown, was named after the ship “Adelaide” (arr. 1840). Residents in 1866 were Mrs. F. Bradey, Messrs. McElroy, G. Lawrence and J. A. Hazeldean.page 209
[By courtesy Councillor W. H. Bennett. Fig.64.—Abel Smith Street 1855 (approx.), and portion of Te Aro. The Hon. A. G. Tollemache's residence is in the foreground to the right (junction of Abel Smith and Willis Streets). Mt. Cook barracks are in the background; Tonks's brickyards below; and the Rev. A. Stock's house near Tollemache's. Captain Daniell's (section 94) is about the centre of the views.
Aitken Street, Thorndon, off Mulgrave and Molesworth Streets, was named after Mr. J. G. W. Aitken, Mayor 1900 to 1904. This street practically covers the area of Fraser's Lane, named after one of the Fraser Brothers later of Rangitikei.
Akatea Street, Newtown is a proposed street (1927) through Mr. Hendrickson's property, Adelaide Road. This street name was the first one the City Council submitted to the Geographic Advisory Board for their approval. The name was approved by the Board on the 10th November, 1927.
Aro Street, Te Aro, off Upper Willis Street (turn off at St. John's Hostel). Fitzgerald's plan (1843) shows the Aro stream flowing down Epuni Street (section 17) and by sections 19 to 25, crossing Wordsworth Street (now Aro Street) by section 38, at St. John Street. A foot bridge here spans the stream which was confined in a covered cement drain in 1926. The playground of the Aro Street Roman Catholic school covers the bed of the stream. The Booth Memorial Home and the Wellington Bowling Club green are approached by this thoroughfare, which comes within the widening scheme of 1927. The Aro Trig is reached via Mortimer Terrace, sections 12 and 13.
Aurora Terrace, Thorndon, off Wellington Terrace, is named after ship “Aurora” (arrived Feb., 1840). The Lion foundry was established on the site of Sayes Court in 1854. In 1857 Mr. E. Toomath opened a Commercial Grammar School at the corner of the Terrace, now Dr. Young's.
Austin Street, Te Aro, approached by Marjoribank, Pirie and Ellice Streets, is named ofter an Englishman connected with the New Zealand Company.
Ballance Street, Thorndon, off Lambton Quay, is named after the Hon. John Ballance, Premier 1891–1893. The Magistrate and Supreme Courts and the Dominion Farmers' Institute are located here.
Bolton Street, Thorndon, named after the ship “Bolton,” which arrived April 28, 1840, is immortalised in one of Brees' illustrations published in 1847 by the view of the old Parsonage where the Rev. Robert Cole resided. The figures toiling up the hill are Mrs. Knowles and her son Walter, on their way to visit the vicar's wife.
The old vicarage is now (1928) called “Dunmore,” and occupied by Mrs. Caldwell.
The sub-division of the Prendergast estate, beyond the cemetery, has metamorphosised that locality.
Toiling leisurely up the north side of the road one may read, in passing the cemetery, some of the grave stones marking the resting place of the early settlers. Near the lower entrance may be seen that of Andrew Gillespie and son, who died of wounds inflicted by the Maoris on the 7th of April, 1846. Nearly opposite, across the narrow track, is the Dorset headstone with its inscription, i.e.:
“John Dorset, surgeon, died at Nelson on the 2nd of October, 1856. Aged 49 years. Also William Dorset, died 2nd April, 1877. Aged 75 years.” Nearby lies Hugh Morrison, died 1843, and his wife Ann Turner, died 1844. A little higher up, John King, solicitor, 1862, and his wife, 1856. The headstones beyond the upper gate record the names of John Houghton, died 1879, H. Middleton Blackburn, 99th Reg., killed in action at Horokiwi engagement, August 6th, 1846, aged 22 years; C. B. Izard, G. Martin, Wm. Pharazyn, Messrs. Saxby and McColl.
Passing through the upper entrance, one may see, by turning to the path on the right (a few yards from the gate), one of the oldest tombstones erected in Wellington. It is split in halves, which are resting against a tree opposite Mr. Jas. Futter's stone. The inscription reads thus:—
“This stone is erected by the affectionate widow of the late John Pearce, late of Birmingham, who was one of the eight unfortunately drowned on the 26th August, 1841; aged 41.”*
The address of Mr. John Fitchett is given as Bolton Street in the Burgess Roll of 1843, and The Almanac of 1863 contains names of the following residents:—G. Bennett, Mrs. Smith and Jas. Wallace (south side), A. Allen, R. H. Huntley, R. Watson (north side, called Cemetery Hill).
Boulcott Street, City, is approached from Manners and Willis Streets, and the Terrace, and named after J. Elliker Boulcott, Esq. This street is described by Brees on Page 32 of his Illustrations of New Zealand thus:—
“The Catholic chapel (St. Mary's Cathedral) is situated at Te Aro, near the beach. The Catholic Pastor is represented by the Rev. Father O'Reilly, who is highly respected among his flock, as well as by all who have the pleasure of his acquaintance. The road shown to the right in the Plate (19) leads from the beach along the sides of the hills to Wellington Terrace.” (Fig. 67.)
The plate referred to, shows a “Procession of seven persons in priestly attire” moving towards the beach. In the foreground, where now the “Traffic Cop” regulates the traffic, some goats and poultry are feeding. The first Catholic church is seen in the background. Minifie's (Queen's) hotel in 1856 stood on the south side of the street at the foot of the present steps.
The residents in 1863 were, from Minifie's Queen's Hotel, R. J. Duncan, J. H. Wallace, W. Lyon (Hannah's), and Stephen Carkeck (west side), E. Jackson, T. Watson, R. W. Pattern, G. Payne, J. C. Wallace and Mrs. Murch (east side).
Whitehall is still in occupation. This was a boardinghouse in 1895, kept by one with the appropriate name of “Onyon.” The old Masonic Hall and the old Marist Brothers' school are still in evidence.
Fig. 67.—Boulcott and Manners Street Corner, 1842. Showing the Roman Catholic chapel. “Situated.” writes Mr. Brees, “near the beach at Te Aro.” Father O'Reilly (in the procession) is seen making his way down Willis Street. The goats and poultry mark the place where the mud oozed down Willis Street during the earthquake of 1855.
Fig. 68.—The same site in 1927, showing the Old Identities (Albert) Hotel. Each upper window frame is adorned by a figure of an old identity. The figure on the skyline to the left is that of Edward Gibbon Wakefield. This building (to be demolished in 1929) was erected and dedicated to the old identities by Mr. John Plimmer, in 1879. Part of the old Union Bank (shown in another picture) is embodied in the structure. St. Mary's Cathedral, designed by Mr. F. de J. Clere, stands on the site of the old chapel. The building adjoining it (formerly Dr. Collins' residence) is occupied (1928) by the Young Women's Christian Association.
Bowen Street, Thorndon, is off Lambton Quay, Museum Street, and The Terrace. This street was originally called Kumutoto Street, and the name was roughly painted on a board and attached to a chief's house. The irate chief tomahawked the sign down, giving as his reason that the name was significant of unpleasant associations. Mr. W. B. D. Mantell was then asked to have the street named after him, but declined. Governor Bowen's name was finally adopted.
The name “Kumutoto” appears on Carkeck's map dated 1861. On the south side of the street are seen Mr. H. Hughling's section (491), with about half a dozen buildings marked on it. These include the corner building, the office of the Provincial Solicitor, Mr. A. de Bathe Brandon. (This corner was known as Brandon's Corner for many years.) The building, and its neighbour (still standing 1929), but to be demolished in 1930, are shown on another page. These were photographed by Robson in 1927. Dr. Featherston's name is shown on the map (on sections 490 and 491, and the site of the Bowen Street Hospital and the Turnbull Library). On the north side, the Government Domain (Parliamentary grounds) with the Church of England site in it, is shown, the latter being about where a tree stands on the Museum Street and Bowen Street Corner.
The Free Lance of the 12th August, 1925, contains an illustration of the Alexander Turnbull Library, with a description of its contents, comprising (1925) 40,000 handsomely bound books, besides a large number of manuscripts, charts, drawings and photographs collected from all parts of the world by the late Mr. Alexander Turnbull and donated to the Government of New Zealand.
Brook Street, Thorndon. off Murphy Street, is said to be named after the Interpreter Brook, whose tongue was cut out by the Ngatitoa, after the Wairau conflict. An early resident in this street was a Stephen Smith, whose name appears on the Burgess Roll as residing at Pipitea Pa, 1843.
Brooklyn was cut up by a syndicate, J. F. E. Wright and others, who named the streets after Presidents of the United States of America. The Encyclopedia of N.Z. Vol. I., page 799 (1897) described this popular suburb thus:—
“Brooklyn, a postal district to the south west of Wellington, is a part of the borough settlement on the hill tops above Ohiro (Owhiro), access from the city being by the Ohiro road from Wordsworth Street. There is a P. and T. bureau at Mrs. Ferkin's store, Ohiro Road, and mails are received every morning. The public buildings are the Brooklyn Hall and the Baptist Church on the Ohiro Road. Business people are Wm. Luxton, Mrs. Smith and W. M. Jackson.”
A relic of 1849, the old St. Peter's clock, is placed in a prominent position on the Anglican church in Washington Avenue, and besides striking the hours, serves as a “rally” for the church people every Sunday.
Fig. 69.—Lambton Quay and Bowen Street, shewing the old “Star” boat shed, Wakefield Club, and Brandon's (later Quinton's) Corner, about to be demolished to provide a site for the War Memorial.
Fig. 70.—Bowen Street, showing the old Provincial Solicitor's Office (the late Mr. A. de Bathe Brandon) on the extreme left. The building on the right (N.Z.L.E.F.C.A. Office) is on the site of Mr. Francis Bradey's quarter-acre section, and is the boundary of the block of buildings to be demolished before April 1929
Buller Street, Te Aro, off Vivian and Ghuznee Streets, is named after Sir Walter Buller.
Bunny Street, City, off Lambton Quay, Featherston Street and Customhouse Quay, is named after Mr. Henry Bunny, a former Provincial Secretary. This street is part of Reclamation, 1882.
Burnham Wharf, Miramar, is approached by Aberdeen Quay and Shelly Bay Road. The first overseas vessel to utilise this wharf was the “El Ciervo” with oil from Singapore (“Evening Post,” 21/9/1927).
Cambridge Terrace, Te Aro, runs parallel with Kent Terrace. Approached by tram via Courtenay Place and Vivian Street.
The “Evening Post” Christmas Number, 1903, page 22, shows amongst their illustrations of Old Wellington. Te Aro Swamp, about five years after the elevation of the ground by the earthquake of 1855. The large drain from the Basin Reserve is seen in the foreground. The Albion Hotel is shown, also a row of houses between Cambridge Terrace and Tory Street. The Maoris dammed a portion of the drain for eel fishing purposes before the drain was covered over, then a plantation of pine trees covered the area until 1905, when the pines were cut down and native shrubs took their place. (Fig. 71.)
The Queen Victoria statue was removed from its original position in front of the Queen's Wharf, and placed in its present place. Cambridge Terrace was named after the Duke of Cambridge. Uncle of Queen Victoria, and father of Princess Mary of Teck, the mother of our present Queen.
According to the Wellington Directory of 1866, the only resident was Captain Holt of the Defence Force. Later residents were Mr. Jas. Wilson 1870, J. Johnston (livery and bait stables) 1891, John Pike's Hotel, 1895.
Carrington Street, Newtown. Off Wright Street, sec. 708, via Wallace Street tram, is named after Wm. F. A. Carrington, surveyor, who arrived in the survey ship “Cuba,” 1840.
Chews Lane, City, off Willis and Victoria Streets, is named after Mr. Edward Chews, who had a timber yard on the north side of the alley.
Cornhill Street, City, named after Cornhill, London, off Manners and Old Customhouse Streets, is one of the oldest business streets of Wellington. At the corner of this street and Old Customhouse Street may be seen an old cannon imbedded in the ground, placed there to serve as a buffer to protect Bethune and Hunter's office from the inroads of the vehicular traffic. The writer was informed that this cannon was used to “start” the races at the anniversary regatta sports gatherings.
A notice appeared in the “N.Z. Journal.” 17/9/1842, reading thus:—“For Nelson and Wellington, N.Z. direct; under engagement to the N.Z. Company. To sail, 1st Oct. (1842), ship “Indus,” 425 tons. D. Mc-Kenzie, master. Lachlan and McLeod, agents, 62 Cornhill.
The Phoenix Aerated Water and Cordial factory was formerly situated in this street. The first proprietors were Walter Greig and Coy. In 1895 (according to the Cyclopedia N.Z., 1897) the proprietor was Mr. M. K. Samuel, son of an early identity. The building was of brick, originally Hickson's store, containing 6,000 sq. feet of floorage.
Coromandel Street, Newtown, off Mein Street, was named after the ship Coromandel, which arrived 30th Aug., 1840. St. Helen's Hospital is located in this street.
Fig. 71—Te Aro Swamp, about five years after the 1855 earthquake. The drain from the Basin Reserve is seen in the foreground. The site is now occupied by the flower plots and Queen Victoria Statue, between Cambridge and Kent Terraces. Mr. John Waters' house is one of the group on the right, and the prominent building facing the swamp (middle of the picture) is the Albion Hotel.
Fig. 72.—Mr. John Waters' house in Courtenay Place, 1859. Mr. Currie, horn player of the 65th Regiment, lived in a cottage down a narrow right-of-way shown to the right. This house was pulled down about ten years ago. It stood about where the Paramount Theatre is.
Fig. 74.—Looking towards Mount Victoria, from the old Market Reserve. Stewart's timber yards in the foreground; Marjoribanks Street up the hill to the left. Fullers' and the King's to the right foreground. De Luxe Theatre on the site of Mr. Alan Anderson's store, at the foot of Marjoribanks Street. (Figs. 73 and 74 by courtesy Sir Douglas Maclean.)
Some of the earlier buildings were the Albion Hotel, 1858; J. Waters' house (Fig. 72) and Rouse, Black and Hurrell's, 1859; Greenfield's timber mill 1862; Stewart and Co., 1865; Gas Works, 1871.
Cuba Street, extended, in 1841, from the water front behind Manners Street, to Ingestre Street (now Vivian). In 1845, a worthy citizen of Wellington plodded his way through fern and ti-tree to Te Aro flat in search of the surveyor's peg, which had been driven in at the corner of Cuba and Dixon Streets. Upon this spot a small house and shop were erected in which a very successful drapery business was carried on by two ladies named Smith. Later, Mr. J. Smith (no relation to the Misses Smith) bought the business, which became long and favourably known as Te Aro House.
There was only one house in Cuba Street in 1850. In 1857 a five-roomed house and garden was offered for sale by Mr. W. H. Rotermund. The garden was stocked with fruit trees of every description, a well of water, and outhouse.
A very interesting paper, compiled and read by Mr. E. G. Pilcher, vice-president of the Early Settlers Association, before its members on the 6th September, 1922, and published in Vols. 2, No. 3 and 4, pp. 25 and 17, gives a detailed account of Cuba Street in the 'sixties. A few extracts are here quoted:—“Starting on the eastern side, we find the Market Reserve, extending as far as Dixon Street.” (This was in 1863.) “Stalls were provided, whence country settlers might dispose of their produce, but practically no attempt was made by those concerned to take advantage of these facilities.” Later, one end was converted into a morgue, and a hotel was built on the corner of the section. This was the first Royal Oak, destroyed by fire in 1879. Some of the names mentioned in the article are, from Dixon Street: T. Whitehouse (arr. 1841), E. Campbell, W. Haybittle, Colquhoun, Nicholson, C. Ward, Mrs. Lawrie, Brewer and Knigge. Hannah's Buildings now occupy these sites. W. P. Barber, J. Renall and G. London. The bridge over the stream coming from Polhill Gully (Aro Street) crossed Ghuznee Street at the corner, and was known as “London Bridge.” The places from Ghuznee Street belonged to E. H. Crease, afterwards Kirkcaldie and Stains branch establishment, then later Thompson and Bennett, Mrs. Wrigley, J. Tolley, and J. Hurley. Then came the White Swan (Churchill's). On the opposite corner (still eastern side) were R. Martin's and R. Miller's establishments (J. Dixon, 1870, formerly Godber's now Dustins)—Edward Dixon's garden adjoined. Across Vivian Street were several residences, occupied by J. H. Horner, A. P. Stuart, and Lieut. Willis (later by Major Paul, whose daughter founded the “Paulina Home, the site of the Salvation Army Hostel, or People's Palace). Higher up was Mr. Billman's residence. Above Abel Smith Street were the houses of W. Tonks (senr.), John Gell and W. Bennett.
Tonks' brickyard was at the top of the street, and Isaac Lovelock's house adjoined it. The latter's house was standing in 1922. Then (west side) were the houses of Lynch, Martin, E. Bannister, J. W. Chisholm, and W. Ashbridge. From Abel Smith Street to Vivian Street were the residences of B. Smith, Mrs. Mills, W. H. Meek, W. Nicholson, Mitchell and Gandy (W. Scott in 1870) and H. F. Logan up to 1884.
Fig. 76.—Cuba Street, 1870, showing Kirkcaldie and Stains branch shop, afterwards Thompson's drapery store. London's paddock is in the foreground.
Fig. 78.—Cuba Street, 1900. The Royal Oak is on the extreme foreground to the left. The Nags Head (Alhambra) by the clock on the right. Te Aro House (with the tower) has been converted into the Burlington Arcade.
Fig. 79.—Winder's Corner (now James Smith), 1904, corner of Cuba and Manners Streets, near the locality of a former residence of Mr. W. B. Rhodes. The Grand Opera House is on the extreme right.
Customhouse Quay. The first sale of sections in this street was advertised for the 14th May, 1858; 25 sections, with frontages to Willis Street, Harbour Street, Customhouse Quay, and the site of the Bank of New Zealand corner. The total frontage was 844ft., at about £6 10s. per foot frontage. The corner section, Customhouse Quay, £15, the Bank of New Zealand, was fixed at £8, totalling £9,712. None of the Customhouse Quay sections, nor the corner, were sold; so were offered again on the 1st September, 1858, and yet again on the 5th March, 1862.
The above information was extracted from Mr. Herbert Baillie's valuable pamphlet on the Early Reclamations and Harbour Works of Wellington, p. 7, and from the Cyclopedia of N.Z., Vol. 1, p. 292, from which fuller details may be obtained.
Some of the names of the business firms which appear in the Wellington Directory for 1866 are as follows:—The London Coffee House, C. Griffin, W. Whitten, W. Krull, — Compton, A. A. Barnett, and the Queen's Bond.
Briscoe's map, 1867, shows the proposed reclamation for the approach to the Queen's Wharf, and the sites for the Bank of Australasia and the Pier Hotel. R. G. Knight, tent maker (arrived in the s.s. “Rangitoto”) established his business in 1867.
Mr. W. T. L. Travers placed on record four photographs of Customhouse Quay, which are now historical, viz., No. 1, Plimmer's Wharf, about 1874, showing Compton's timber wharf at the back of it, and between the two wharves may be seen the old boilers of the s.s. “Rangatira,” which, when worn out, were thrown overboard in shallow water, in the free and easy manner of those times. (“Evening Post,” Xmas No., 1904, p. 25). The N.Z. Steam Navigation Company's building, a part of Boulcott Street, and the old Wesleyan Church are seen in the distance. The second photo shows the Quay and watermen's steps, about 1874, the Bank of Australasia, and the Pier Hotel. The Queen's Bond stands on piles lapped by the waters beneath the building. The N.Z. Express Company's building stands (1904) where the array of boats may be seen on the steps. No. 3 picture is on page 26 of the same issue of the “Post,” and shows the Quay looking northward from the steps, showing, besides the Pier Hotel, the Post Office, the Provincial Buildings (site of Government Life Insurance and now a part of the interor of the building), and Mills' (Cable's in 1904) Lion Foundry in the distance. The third picture shows the Quay and Hunter Street; the “Noah's Ark,” with McIntyre, the ship chandler's name fronting the gable end of the shingled roof; the building at the corner, the “Tribune” newspaper office, of Mr. W. Hutchison; the old Supreme Court, Lambton Quay; and Mr. Ebenezer Baker's office may be seen in the background. While above it (along Hunter Street) may be seen the residence of Mr. Hoggard, embowered in trees. The A.M.P. Buildings, etc., are at the right of the picture.
Looking at the map of 1926, the principal buildings shown are the Bank of New Zealand, National Mutual. A.M.P., G.P.O., Government Life, Life, Union Steam Ship Company, Commercial and Dominion Line, on the page 222 west side; while on the east side are the Customs Offices, Wharves, Bank of Australasia, N.Z. Carrying Company, and King's Chambers.
Daniell Street, Newtown, approached from Mein and Constable Streets, via Riddiford Street, extends to Newtown Park. It is named after Capt. Daniell, though Brees' map (1843), shows only one “1.” J. Mann's name appears in the Directory for 1866 as resident. The “Evening Post” Christmas number, 1903, p. 15, shows the residences in the locality in 1893, and states that about this time and for some years after, a good deal of building took place in this neighbourhood. St. Anne's Convent is on Sec. 780–782.
Davis Street, Thorndon, off Thorndon Quay and Hobson Street, is named after a Maori who lived at Pipitea Pa, dressed as a European, spoke a little English, and was an interpreter. He is mentioned in Wakefield's Adventure in New Zealand.
Davis Street Extenson, Thorndon, formed on reclaimed land (H. 1884, X. 1906, and Y. 1900 on plan) extends from Thorndon Quay to Waterloo Quay. This street consituted an approach to the Thorndon Esplanade and meteorological record instruments until 1927.
Day's Bay. Formerly named Hawtrey Bay, after the original owner, the Rev. J. Hawtrey, who also bought up some of the town acres. The bay was purchased by Mr. J. H. Williams at a later date, then by the Ferry Company, and the present Park portion passed to the public.
The “Evening Post,” dated 3rd December, 1927, has a detailed account of the early history of the bay and of Mr. Downes' recollections.
Mr. Day, who arrived in Wellington about 1843, resided at the bay for a time, thus giving rise to the name of Day's Bay. A plan (No. 31/33) lodged in the Harbour Board offices under Mr. Turner's care, shows the sub-division of “Ferryside” sections 1 to 37, surveyed by Messrs Seaton and Sladden, and auctioned by Macdonald and Wilson on the 15th November, 1905.
Sectons 1–55 were also auctioned by Turnbull and Co. on the 11th March, 1914 (vide W.H. Board plan 46/33). The “Auckland Weekly,” of the 21st Semptember, 1922, shows, among other illustrations, a pretty peep of the bay; and the “Free Lance,” 10/3/1926, shows the road receiving its quota of bitumen.
Dixon Street, Te Aro, extends from The Terrace to Taranaki Street, and is approached by tram via Willis and Cuba Streets. Named after J. Dixon, Esq., a promoter of the New Zealand Company, and a friend of Captain Mein Smith, who surveyed the road in 1841. The earliest residents recorded on the Burgess Roll, 1843, are: Messrs. Geo. Hunter and E. Catchpool. In 1845 (“Free Lance,” 12/8/1925), Mr. Geo. Waters advertises the sale of oranges and drapery at his place of business in Dixon Street. In 1849 the Misses Spinks conducted a school opposite Herbert Street, before they removed to a house (still standing in 1927) behind St. John's Presbyterian Church. This school was in operation from 1849 to 1897. (Some Schools and Schoolmasters, by G. Macmorran.) A horse infirmary, Michael Quin, appeared in 1852, and the following names are recorded in an almanac for 1863 (spelt Dickson) :—G. Turnbull, merchant; J. Tully, grazier; A. Allen and M. Quin (south side). From Quin Street (now Sturdee) are: N. Stoddart, G. Waters, C. Luxford, S. Parks, G. Goldfinch, and J. Halket. On the north side are: G. Hunter, merchant; to Willis Street, T. W. Pilcher, ships agent, to Herbert Street; and from Herbert Street were: P. McCafferty, J. R. Williams (surgeon), J. Kermore, J. Harris, and T. McClelland.
A Wesleyan School, conducted by Mr. Stephens, was started in 1873, and Prouse page 223 Bros. timber mills were in full swing in 1874. Dixon's cordial factory, later Ballinger's, occupied the site now partly covered by the Municipal Milk Depot. The principal buildings are St. John's Presbyterian Church, the Y.M.C.A. Hostel, and King's Theatre.
Duppa Street, off Adelaide Road South, and Stanley street, the approach to the Berhampore Golf Links, was named after Mr. Geo. Duppa.
Ellice Street, off Basin Reserve, Kent Terrace, extends to the quarry; it is named after Russell Ellice, a director of the New Zealand Company. An illustration of this street may be seen in the “Auckland Weekly,” 11/1/1923.
Farish Street, City, is off Manners and Old Customhouse Streets. The Te Aro portion of Captain Mein Smith's panoramic view of Port Nicholson, 1842, taken from the high ground above the R.C. Church in Boulcott Street, and showing the flagstaff and thatched roofs of three raupo houses in Willis Street, gives one a good idea of what Farish Street was like. The Customs House and Post Office stood at the corner of Old Customhouse Street, opposite the vacant section, facing the Public Library. The site is now (1928) occupied by H. M. Haywards brick building, (lettered H.M.H. 1892 on stone at the corner). The Ship Hotel, Manners Street, and the Southern Cross Hotel may be seen a short distance away. Captain E. Daniell is credited with having a sawmill at the foot of the street in 1841.
The Burgess Roll, 1843, discloses the address, in Farish Street, of Mr. Wm. Fitzherbert, whose building, shown in the 1848 earthquake illustrations was badly damaged. The almanac for 1852 gives the names of John Varnham, merchant, and R. Waitt. The latter had an office in the Customs building. His wharf (quoting Baillie's Early Reclamations, p. 715) : “Its present position would be through the vacant section owned, I believe, by Burns, Philp and Co.” Although sometimes referred to as Customhouse wharf, it was privately owned, and frequently changed its ownership and name. A tramway and crane were on the wharf, which extended about two hundred feet from a platform on which were two iron stores. Mr. W. Waring Taylor purchased it in 1860 for £800.
Farish Street terminated at Customhouse Street. The almanac for 1863 adds Mr. G. Crawford's name to the business places, and that of 1866 the names of Sidey and Co.
The Customs officers associated with this locality in 1845 were Messrs. P. D. Hogg, sub-collector and landing surveyor; J. Macarthy, landing waiter, searcher and tide surveyor; — Renney, clerk and warehouse keeper; and Moses Yule, locker.
The moneys received by Mr. Hogg from the 6th of April to 3rd July, 1846, were:—
|Spirits, 2717 gall., at 5/-||679||9||2|
|Cigars and Snuffs, 257lbs., at 2/-||25||14||0|
|Tobacco, manufactured, 3890lbs., at 1/-||194||10||0|
|Ad valorem duty||321||19||9|
|£1221||12||1[gap — reason: illegible]|
The officers in 1848 were Messrs P. D. Hogg, collector; Captain C. Sharp, acting-harbourmaster; A. W. Shand, acting-landing waiter; and E. Catchpool, acting-clerk and warehouse keeper.
In 1856 they were: Messrs. S. Carkeek, collector; E. Catchpool, first landing waiter; Captain Sharp, tide surveyor and harbourmaster; S. E. Grimstone, collector's clerk and accountant; R. E. Bannister, first clerk and warehouse keeper; F. Meier, second ditto; T. W., third ditto; Charles Ward, first locker; C. H. Stulfield, second ditto; and G. Hawkins, weigher and gauger.
Fig. 80.—The Bank Manners Street, 1842 (approx.). In the vicinity of Farish Street, about opposite the Bank (Clarendon) Hotel, which was demolished in 1927 for street widening purposes.
Fig. 81.—Farish Street, 1907. The building to the left is a portion of the Arcade (then Wilkins and Field's, now Radford's). The Farish Street Biscuit and Confectionery Company, etc., to the right. The locality, once redolent with the aroma of boiled sugar, has been metamorphosised and is now traversed by motorists and pedestrians. It is a short cut to the Library (seen in the distance) from Manners Street.
The postmaster was Mr. J. F. Hoggard. His clerks were: Messrs. R. Kirton, E. Cooke, J. Hoggard, and L. Buck. The messengers were A. Phelps and — Wallington.
The Biscuit and Confectionery Company were established in Farish Street in 1875, and R. Hudson and Co. in 1895.
The origin of the name of Farish Street, is shrouded in mystery; though it is said to have originated from a remark passed between the surveyor and a friend who were standing at the corner of Manners Street (Clarendon Hotel) and looking towards the sea, that it was a “Fairish Street.”
Possibly it was named after a Mr. Farish, whose name was on a fly leaf of a book once owned by Mr. T. L. Buick.
Featherston Street. City, extends from the Union Bank, Willis Street, to Lambton Railway Station, and is named after Dr. I E. Featherston, Superintendent of the Province. Between the years 1857 to 1861 reclamation was filled in with spoil brought in carts from Willis and Boulcott Streets, and a tramway from Kumototo (Woodward Street), and in July, 1864, a street running parallel with Customhouse Quay was formed. (Baillie's Reclamations, p. 713).
Bannatyne and Hunter were established in 1870, Waddell and McLeod in 1873, and Lambert, architect, in 1874. A fine view of this street, showing the G.P.O. on the left, and the old Athenaeum or Exchange in the distance, appears in the “Auckland Weekly” 21/9/1922.
Fitchett Town. Brooklyn, approached by Ohiro Road, and by tram via Brooklyn Road, is named after Mr. A. B. Fitchett, the former owner.
Fig. 82.—Featherston Street showing the fountain presented by the Hon. John Martin. M.J.C., corner of Featherston Street and Lambton Quay. This fountain now (1928) stands opposite the Band Rotunda, Oriental Bay.
Fig. 83.—Featherston Street, 1927. This view is taken from the Post Office. Mr. J. H. Bethune and Co. is to the left, in the centre, and the Dominion Farmers' Institute in the distance.
Fig 84.—The Union Bank, 1927. The “Sam” Brown commemoration pole, erected 1888 to mark the installation of electricity, stands near the telephone box.
Fig. 86.—Fitchett's Farm House, and group of employees and friends, 1879. The house stands (1929) at the junction of Owhiro Road, Helen Street and Tanera Crescent (Brooklyn) A two-storied addition has been erected where the group is seen in the illustration. Figs. 85 and 86 by courtesy Mr. A. B. Fitchett. Reproductions by E. T. Robson.
Fitzgerald Point, Oriental Bay, fronts Section 390 and Oriental trig, and is near the Te Aro Baths. It was named after Mr. J. E. Fitzgerald, C.M.G., Comptroller and Auditor-General, whose residence was on the hill above.
Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, between Hobson Street and Murphy Street, via Molesworth Street tram route, is named after Sir Wm. Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G., Province of Wellington, and Speaker of the House of Representatives.
A big military encampment, relic of the Maori wars, occupied this locality. Cottages built as married quarters for non-commissioned officers wives were built. “Tinakori,” writing to the “Evening Post” on the 12th April, 1927, states, with reference to the gully: “It was my pleasure many years ago to meet an old whaler, Johnston by name, but known as Scotch Jock, who in the early days was well acquainted with this particular locality before, and following the date of settlement. He gave the name of the stream as ‘Takawai,’ and said that a pa by that name was situated on the crest of the hill above the old junction brewery and Esplanade Hotel. He stated that the gully was used as a natural defence work by the Maoris, and afterwards by the first soldiers and settlers. A few yards further back, inside the hedged fence at the corner of Fitzherbert Terrace and Hobson Street, the old redoubts and trenches can still be seen. Within recent times a portion was filled in and turned into a tennis court. The thick hedge has hidden these early defence works for many years.”
The former residence of Sir Harold Beauchamp, which is about fifty years old, has been turned into a hostel for railway cadets. This large two-storied house was donated by Sir Harold for realisation to render possible the idea of an adequate art gallery for the city, and sold to the New Zealand Government Railways for £6250.
Two portions of the Marsden School, and Queen Maragaret's College, are shown on the map issued by the Lands and Survey Department, 1926.
Flagstaff Hill, Te Aro, is off Willis Street and Terrace Gardens, sec. 192. Mr. E. France's name figures as a resident here in the directory for 1866.
George Street, Thorndon, off Tinakori Road, is named after Mr. J. F. George, engineer, at one time secretary to the Patent Slip Co., who in 1865 commenced the first iron extension of the Queens Wharf. See also John Street.
Ghuznee Street, Te Aro, extends from The Terrace to Taranaki Street, and is approached from Willis and Cuba Streets by tram.
Named in 1840 in memory of the storming and fall of Fort Ghuznee, an page 229 Afghan stronghold, by the British in 1839. St. Peter's School was conducted by Mr. W. H. Holmes in 1854, and in 1863 the names appearing in the Almanac for that year comprised the following:
On the north side were Messrs. J. Sedcole, Mrs. Askin, P. Branigan, W. Corner, and Carter's brick yard (Willis Street intersects). St. Peter's Church and School, A. E. Burden, S. Furness, S. S. Jacka, J. Inglis, E. N. Baker (Maori interpreter), J. Pattinson, Mrs. Ferras, Mrs. Murphy, J. Phillips, W. Payne, Valentine's Foresters' Arms Hotel. Mrs. Leek; on the south side were Major Bell, T. W. McKenzie, Mrs. Rudman, Mrs. Dougherty, R. Weatherhead, J. and D. Wilson, J. Muir, T. J. Mountain, — Messana. J. Linklater, J. Martin, H. Douglas, — McLean, boat builder, and J. Davis.
The public places are St. Peter's Church (Sec. 169) and Te Aro P. and T. Office (Sec. 181). This street comes under the widening scheme of 1927.
Glenbervie Terrace, Thorndon, off Tinakori Road, near Hill Street, was spelt “Glenburvie” on a survey map of 1848. This name is thought to have originated from the ship “Glenbervie,” which arrived 7th March, 1840, and has generally been accepted as such.
Residents of this locality in 1866 were Messrs W. Cooper, A. G. Swanson, F. Bright and C. Johnston. The name of Glenbervie Road was changed to Sydney Street in 1926.
Golders Hill, off Hill Street, Thorndon. This hill, with Dr. Evans' residence on it, is shown on the extreme left of the panoramic map of Wellington appearing in Brees' “Pictorial New Zealand,” 1847 (Fig. 32), the descriptive notes of which appear on page 35. In its origin the name emanated from Dr. Evans, who named it after his old English home, Golders Hill, Hampstead. Dr. Evans occupied the house in 1840 and until his departure for London. Mr. J. Coutts Crawford then tenanted it until 1852.
A reference to Golders Hill appears in the “Independent” of the 21st January, 1857, viz.:—“To Be Let, immediately, Golders Hill—that house and ground on Golders Hill, lately occupied by Mr. Justice Stephen, with stable attached. For terms apply, R. R. Strang.”
When Dr. Evans returned to Wellington in 1864 he again lived on Golders Hill until his death (September 23, 1868). Major Chas. Heaphy, V.C., then occupied the house, and a later occupant was Henry Bunny Esq., M.H.R. for Wairarapa. The house, which stood about where Dr. Morice's garden is laid out, was demolished many years ago.
Other residents about 1866 were Messrs. W. W. Martin, J. Wright, C. Duncan and Mrs. H. Lewis. Sir Frederick R. Chapman now (1929) resides near the site of Dr. Evans' house on Golders Hill.
Goldies Brae, Wadestown, off Grosvenor Terrace and near Queens Park, is the name of an old residence built by Dr. Johnston, health officer and coroner of Wellington for many years.
Grant Road, Thorndon, extends from Patanga Crescent to Cottleville Terrace, via. Tinakori Road. It skirts the Town Belt and Queen's Park. Near the park an ever-running stream of fresh water from a spring flows into a font erected by the Council. Many of the Thorndon residents have, for a number of years, made a daily pilgrimage to this shrine, carrying utensils for bringing home the cool spring water for drinking purposes.
Fig. 87.—Showing part of the Post Office, Mr. Dransfield's Office, and the back of the Oddfellows' Hall, 1866.
Fig. 88.—Corner of Grey Street and Lambton Quay in the sixties, shewing the Oddfellows' Hall (T. and G. corner) and reclamation.
Fig. 89.—The approach from Grey Street to the Queen's Wharf. Queen Victoria's statue in Post Office Square, was removed to its present position in Cambridge Terrace some years ago.
Grey Street is the main approach from the Queens Wharf to Lambton Quay. It was named after Sir George Grey, first resident Governor of Wellington. The early pictures show the Queens Bond, Post Office, and Dransfield's. Cows were tethered on the reclamation (site of the Pier Hotel) where the Caledonian sports were held for some time. The Oddfellows' Hall, which was removed to Adelaide Road, and later destroyed by fire, stood where the T. and G. Buildings are now.
Guilford Terrace, Thorndon, is off Hill Street. This name was given by Mr. C. Webb, after the Earl of Guilford.
The residents in 1863–1866 were Messrs. W. Allen, J. Elliott, Mrs. Carmont, Mr. Spiers, and J. H. Northwood.
Guthrie Street, Thorndon, off Aitken and Wingfield Streets, was formerly John Street (Secs. 533, 534). It was named after the late Hon. J. Guthrie, Minister of Lands, John Street, referred to as John Street North in the directory for 1910, was cut out of original sections 537, 538, and led from Fraser's Lane (once a popular resort for sailors and others) to Wingfield Street, and was named after the father of Messrs. F. J. and H. T. Johns.
The residents in 1866 were R. S. Barker, J. Didsbury, B. Franklin, B. George and J. Gibson. The map of 1888 shows Guthrie Street as John Street.
Hankey Street. Te Aro, off Thompson, Nairne, Hopper and Taranaki Streets, is the southern approach to the Technical College. Named after a London banker connected with the New Zealand company.
Hanson Street, Newtown, extends from Drummond Street to Stoke Street. John Street intersects at the tram route by the Alexander Home. Named after R. D. Hanson Esq., Crown solicitor, etc., arrived by “Cuba.”
Harriet Street, Thorndon, off Tinakori and Grant Roads, is named after Dr. Evans' wife. The Pipitea stream flowed down the Tinakore Road, which is crossed at the junction of Harriet Street.
Hawker Street, Mt. Victoria slopes, off Marjoribanks Street and Oriental Terrace, is named after Mr. C. C. Hawker, of Camelford, Cornwall. St. Gerard's Church is the most prominent feature.
Hawkestone Street. Thorndon, is off Molesworth Street and Tinakori Road. This valley was once covered with thick forest, of which only one tree is now left—a kakikatea or white pine, which did not present sufficient attraction to the sawyer in the early stage of the Colony, having escaped the general slaughter. “It is now preserved for the sake of ornament (1847),” states Brees in his “Pictorial New Zealand.” “Live stock, such as fowls, ducks, turkeys and goats, are flourishing exceedingly.”
Fig. 90.—Old Karori Road (Hawkestone Street), 1843. Mr. Brees' cottage is on the left (vicinity Hawkestone Crescent) looking towards Tinakori Road.
Fig. 91.—Looking towards the sea from Tinakori Road, whence the Maoris are hauling a canoe. A chief is standing in the centre, directing operations. Mr. Brees' cottage is at the right.
One of the views (Fig. 91) is taken from Tinakori Road. Maoris are seen dragging a large canoe to the harbour: a chief stands in the canoe giving time to the men at the rope. Brees' cottage is seen at the right.
The names appearing on the Burgess Roll of 1843 as residents are:—S. Brees, E. Davis, G. Edwards, Henry St. Hill and J. Woodward.
The Government granted a site (section 566) in Hawkestone Street, to the Rev. Dr. Viard and his successors, for the education of native and half-caste children.
The first official visitors at St. Joseph's Providence” were Messrs. J. Johnston and Clifford.
In 1850 Mr. W. Marshall conducted a grammar school on the Crescent, and the 1863 Almanac contains the names of the residents, viz.:—Messrs. H. Shaw, H. Robinson, A. Hughes, I. Clark, M. Kebble, W. Bowler, H. St. Hill, W. Nicholas, M. Holmes and Miss Caroll.
The origin of the name appears to be associated with the name of General Hill's “Hawkestone” Estate (see Hill Street).
Hay Street, Oriental Bay (Sec. 412–419), is off Oriental Parade, near Band Rotunda. Named after Mr. Wm. Hay, of Shetland Yards, a large employer of labour. Mr. Arcus appears to have been the first resident.
Herald Street, Berhampore, off Adelaide Road, Rintoul Street and Russell Terrace, is named after H.M.S. “Herald.”
Herbert Street, Te Aro. Off Manners and Dixon Streets, is named after Sir Wm. Fitzherbert, who owned the land and sub-divided it. The residents in 1843 (Burgess Roll) were R. Langdon and C. H. Squib (town crier).
Langdon's Store and Hansard's Place were damaged by the earthquake of 1848. In 1852, Mr. Joe Bishop's name appears as resident. A little later Mr. T. W. Pilcher, of Customhouse Wharf, advertised for lease (“Independent.” 23rd April, 1858): “That desirable warehouse situated in Herbert Street, lately occupied by the Provincial Government as an immigration depot.”
The residents in 1863 were (west side): Messrs. J. Gillard, T. Williams and W. Jackson; (east side), W. Spinks at corner, W. W. Taylor, W. Greenfield and G. Packman. Mr. Waring Taylor's house still stands (1929).
Hill Street, Thorndon, off Molesworth Street and Tinakori Road, is named after General Rowland Hill, second in command at Waterloo, under the Duke of Wellington, and later the Commander-in-chief of the British Army.
The original purchasers of the Town acres in this street, with frontages also to Glenbervie Road, were: Clement Tabor, sec. 522; J. Elliot, sec. 523, sold to J. Viney Junr. (Parliament Street was taken out of sec. 523); Henrietta Rintoul, sec. 524; J. Heath's section, 525, extended, as did 526 to 530, to Sydney Street. Dr. Thomas Arnold, of Rugby, bought sections 526 and 527. S. Farrar. sec. 528; H. A. Aglionby, sec. 529; H. Moreing, sec. 530 (corner of Molesworth Street), sold to Sir William Fox. Sections 526 to 530 were merged in the Provincial Buildings site, now Parliamentary Grounds. The purchasers of the north side acres were: James Smith, sec. 456 (corner of Tinakore Road), sold to Louis Nathan; Geo. S Evans, sec. 547, sold to Jas. Field; Ed. Daniell, sec. 548; His Grace the Duke of Sutherland, sec. 550, sold to R. Barton, B. Gordon, J. C. and D. Brown; Edmund Halswell, sec. 552; Geo. D. Monteith, sec. 554, sold to B. Gordon, R. Jenkins, W. Allen and E. Prince; Henry Moreing, sec. 556, sold to the Roman Catholic Bishop of page 234 Wellington; Geo. S. Evans, sections 558, 560 and 562. Section 558 was sold to E. C. Strode. Golders Hill was formed out of sections 560 and 562. Sir Wm. Moles-worth bought section 564 (corner of Molesworth Street. This was cut up and sold to C. and H. Buick, Jabez Dean, the Bishop of New Zealand, D. Williams, Ann Cording, and R. H. Carpenter.
Dr. Evans' house is shown on Golders Hill, in the Thorndon Quay portion of Heaphy's “Panoramic Sketch,” 1841.
The Burgess Roll, 1843, contains the name of Mr. E. T. Fox as resident during that period. Mr. R. H. Huntley's school was in operation in 1849, and in 1852, St. Mary's Cathedral, a Gothic building, was dedicated, about 600 persons witnessing the ceremony.
The names appearing in the almanacs 1860 to 1866 were: Mrs. Calcott; Messrs. W. Gray, J. J. Costall, J. Rolls, E. Prince, J. F. Johns, Bishop Viard, the Rev. R. Fell, Messrs. E. J. Campion, C. J. Batkin, M. Murdoch and Rose.
Carkeek's map, dated 1861, bears the following names, as under:—Sec. 595, W. Hickson and W. M. Smith (old No. 596 Govt. Reserve); 599. C. Clifford; 607, Makarita Davis, Arahia Davis and Ven. Archdeacon Williams (608a); 596, A de B. Brandon; 610, Rob Hart, A. Ingram-Johnston (right of way between); 612, C. Chippendale; 614, W. M. Bannatyne; 616, T. D. McManaway and Sir C. Clifford. The hospital reserves were at the corner of Pipitea and Hobson Streets (594) and Tinakori Road, and a grant of land for a college, with four buildings on it, at Moles-worth Street corner and Hobson Street. The records for 1865–66 show the names of Messrs. T. C. Williams and J. Futter.
Hopper Street, Te Aro, off Webb and Hankey Streets, is named after E. B. Hopper, Esq., head of the firm of Hopper, Petre and Molesworth. The almanacs for 1863 and 1866 contain the names of residents, viz.:—Mrs. F. Rush; Messrs. F. Sidey, R. S. Cheesman, Anderson, J. Stoddart, J. Porter, H. Pilcher and E. Godber. Mrs. Wilkinson's school was in operation in 1872.
Houghton Bay, Queens Drive, between Lyall and Island Bays, is named after Mr. J. Houghton. The old Maori name for the Bay is “Haewai.” Where Te Kopara's party cremated the chiefs of Uruhau, Te Aka-Tarewa and Te Wai-Hirere; then made rafts to cross the channel to Motu Kairangi—Miramar Island (Best, p. 284). Houghton Bay Road extends from Clonmell Road, Miramar North, via. Russell Terrace and Town Belt (near Mt. Albert) to Queens Drive.
Hunter Street, City, off Lambton, Customhouse and Jervois Quays, is named after Mr. George Hunter, the eldest son of the first Mayor of Wellington, and father to page 235 Sir George Hunter, M.P. It was formed on part of the reclamation of 1857–1863. The Harbour Board plans 8. 9 and 10/33 show leases put up for auction in 1890. The Nelson Alehouse (Central Hotel 1929) is shown on the illustration of 1874. This street comes under the street-widening scheme of 1927.
Island Bay is approached from Adelaide Road, via. Berhampore, by tram, and Queens Drive by motor bus, etc. The origin of the name is due to the island immediately south of the Bay, called Tapu-te-ranga. Mr. George Hunter, son of the first Mayor of Wellington, became proprietor of the Island Bay estate in the early days. It was surveyed by Mr. J. N. Coleridge, and Lots 1 to 582 were offered for sale by Mr. J. H. Bethune in 1879. These are shown on a sale plan numbered 3/33, lodged in the Harbour Board office, and a photo-litho of the city and suburbs by Deveril in 1880, kindly lent to the writer by Mr. Frank Grady.
The streets are named after the rivers of the United Kingdom. The writer was given a map of 1888 by Mr. F. M. Norris. This map, drawn and published by Mr. F. H. Tronson, of Lambton Quay, shows the Island Bay Racecourse, approached from the north by the Parade and Derwent Street, with Clyde Street as its east boundary, and Ribble Street giving access from the west. The racecourse extended from Medway Street to Humber Street, and parts of Thames and Mersey Streets were included in the area, which is not marked on the map; neither is the open drain that coursed through it. The Island Bay Hermit, whose smoke be-grimed cave was situated a short distance from the Bay, towards Houghton Bay, was an attraction to visitors and a source of revenue to the hotel and refreshment rooms.
Picnic parties at this time thought nothing of tramping to Island Bay, and the writer can recall a visit to the Hermit in 1886. He was reclining on some sacks at the far end of the cave, and did not appear anxious or pleased to see strangers, who invariably left coins of the realm on a huge boulder near a smouldering fire that rendered the atmosphere as unpleasant as the Hermit's company, and which caused them to make an early departure.
Evidently the Hermit was not averse to being photographed, as a reproduction of one is on page 27 of the “Evening Post” Christmas number of 1903, where he is seen standing at the entrance to his cave. Island Bay, in 1895, is described in the “New Zealand Encyclopedia,” vol. 1 p. 799, thus:—“Island Bay is a settlement 4 miles south of Wellington, and forms a ward of the Borough of Melrose… . There are no postal arrangements, but a telephone bureau has been established at the Island Bay Hotel. The place is a summer holiday resort for city residents, and the houses are mostly unoccupied in the winter.” Mr. R. Keene's house on the hill is an old land mark, but the sand dunes, the camping places of picnic parties, are now levelled and built on. The latest attraction is the Children's Playground, which was opened by Councillor B. G. H. Burn on the 18th December, 1927. A description, with illustrations, appears in “The Dominion,” 14/12/27, and the “Post” on the 19th.
Jervois Quay extends from Grey Street (Post Office Square) to Taranaki Street, The Central Fire Station and the Queen's Wharf, etc., are in this locality. The Quay was named after Sir William Jervois, Governor in 1883–1889. Messrs. T. and W. Young's business was established near the wharf in 1865. The “New Zealand Encyclopedia,” vol. 1. p. 311, shows the wharf and a 40-ton crane at work in 1896.page 236
John Street, Newtown, is off Tasman and Hanson Streets, and Adelaide and Hutchison Roads. This name is associated with John Howard Wallace.
Residents in 1866 were Messrs. Ockenden and W. Smith, and probably Mr. Bird, the last of the squatters to live in a whare on the Town Belt in that vicinity. The Hutchison Road alteration scheme, for show purposes, is dealt with in an “Evening Post” article (2/9/27). The same paper published a description and a plan of the general layout of the scheme on the 2nd December, 1926.
Johnston Street, City, reclaimed land, off Lambton and Customhouse Quays, is named after the Hon. John Johnston. The most noticeable feature in this street is Waddell and McLeod's timber mill, next to the Police Headquarters, which occupy the site of the Theatre Royal, opened in 1871. This was the scene of many dramatic and musical performances.
The writer recalls his first visit to this theatre in 1886, and his pleasure in listening to Mr. E. J. Hill (Teddy) sing “The Pilgrim of Love”; also his associations with the orchestra in connection with the Musical Society, under Mr. Robert Parker's baton, Watkin Mills, Otto Schwartz, and many others.
Kaiwharawhara, 2 miles from Lambton Station, approached by the Tinakori Road, Thorndon Quay and the Hutt-Petone Road, is named after the “wharawhara,” the Astelia Banksu (a plant), or the long plumes of the white heron, worn by Maori chiefs on state occasions: vide Archdeacon Williams's “Maori Directory.” (Kai—to eat; eating-food.)
On the 27th December, 1840, about 300 passengers, consisting mainly of Highlanders and Paisley weavers from Clyde, landed from the ship “Blenheim” (see “Blenheim” passenger-list) at Kaiwharawhara, and “pigged” it in a large raupo whare erected by the agent of the New Zealand Company. They remained there for some time, until some drifted to the Hutt, Porirua and Rangitikei. One of the passengers was Mr. Jas. Brown, whose reminiscences of a pioneer settler, published in Vol. 2, No. 3 Journal of the Early Settlers' Association, January, 1923, make very interesting reading. A saw-mill was erected on a section belonging to Captain Daniell and undertaken by four mill wrights, who completed it in October, 1842. The mill consisted of a water wheel placed athwart the stream, which was dammed up. The “New Zealand Journal” (10/10/46) stated: “The dam of Mr. Schultz's mill at Kaiwharawhara was carried away by a flood caused by heavy rain, and would require about £200 to repair the damage.” An illustration of this mill, the bush behind, the bullock dray and bushmen may be seen in Fig. 94. The illustration of another mill (Fig. 96), Matheson and Schultz's flourmill, was photographed about 1857. The dam of the latter is still a conspicuous object, and the water pool below serves as a bathing hole for children.
Fig. 95.—Kaiwharawhara in 1865. Some of our pioneers were landed here. The hulk of the “Oliver Lang” is seen near the Hotel.
Fig. 96.—Kaiwharawhara Flourmill, 1857 (approx.). Brees (1845) describes this as “recently completed by the proprietors, Messrs. Matheson and Schultz.” It had two pairs of stones. The dam was a conspicuous object until last year. The Atlantic Bulk Terminal (oil stores) now occupy the site.
Fig. 97.—Kaiwharawhara Road, to Ngaio, shewing the site of the old mill. The house in the foreground was removed to make way for the Atlantic Union Oil Co.'s tanks. Figs. 95, 96 and 97, which appeared in the “Evening Post” Supplement, 1903, are by courtesy Messrs. Blundell Bros., Proprietors.
The remains of the s.s. Arawata lie in the sea on the beach behind the railway station. She began service as a passenger boat in 1875, degenerated into a coal hulk, was bumped into by the s.s. Devon, damaged and beached in 1926, vide “Evening Post” (14/1/1926). Taringa-Kuri, called “Dog's Ear,” because by placing his ear to the ground he could detect the approach of an enemy from a great distance, was the principal chief of the natives located here when the first settlers arrived.
Kaiwharawhara Road. In 1840 the bush covered the hillsides down to the water's edge, and the pedestrian scrambled through the bush or over the rocks in the best manner that he could. A sailor escaped from his boat early in 1841, and made his way to Pito-one, where he lived with the Maoris for a time. Thinking that the ship had sailed, he ventured to go to Thorndon, but found on his arrival that he was mistaken, for the first person he saw was has captain, a martinet. Needless to state, he made his tedious way back again. The “Gazette,” 9th October, 1841, made this announcement: “The road from Wellington to Petone is now nearly completed, and perfectly easy to be gone over by any vehicle. Mr. Sam Phelps. with his dray and team of bullocks, has had the honour of being the first to travel over it, which he did two or three days ago, and arrived there with flying colours. The next thing we suppose we shall have to record will be the first coach. ‘Tally Ho’ will start daily, passing through ‘Kaiwarra’ and ‘Nga-rangi,’ and returning the same day. Verily this is the age of improvement.” Cap. Daniell's bridle road was widened sufficiently to admit of the passage of a dray, and continued into the road leading into Porirua. Wakefield states, in 1842 (p. 546, “Adventure in New Zealand”): “As you wind round the sides of the rocky spurs, beneath gigantic boughs and luxuriant foliage, you obtain peeps of the velvet woods of the Valley of Kai-Wharawhara and its tributaries, then a view of the western face of Wadestown, with its cottages and bright green gardens, and lastly, the wide expanse of Port Nicholson, with its ships, its peaked mountains and its glistening town.”
The Kaiwharawhara stream winds its course from above Mitcheltown (vide Hutt County Map, Survey Department), across the Karori Road, through Wilton's Bush, between (at times) the golden bloom clad hills by Ngaio, and flows into the sea at Kaiwharawhara. Mr. J. C. Crawford, in an article in Brett's “History of New Zealand,” p. 517, mentions that the Maoris used to charge sixpence for carrying pedestrians across the ford. An illustration of this may be seen in the view of Nga-Uranga. (Fig. 136.)
Karori “devious” is approached by tram from Government Buildings, via. Molesworth Street, past the Botanical Gardens to Karori Road, and from Allington and Makara Roads, etc. Wakefield, in his “Adventure in New Zealand,” refers to Karori in 1842, thus:page 239
“In the upland Valley of the Karore, several people had begun to clear. The road had not yet reached this, having to cross a steep part of the Kaiwharawhara Valley, but the clearers used to find their way by an old Maori path and live in the bush for days together. This valley is situated at the elevation of about 800 feet above sea level, about 2m. S.W. of Wellington by the present road. This tract boasts of the very finest totara and other timber.” The population in 1845 was 215, consisting of 57 males and 49 females (adults), and 49 males and 60 females, under 14. There were 32 couples with families, and 4 without; 17 bachelors, 12 spinsters, 4 widowers, and 1 widow. In 1845 there were 132 acres cleared. The “New Zealand Journal” of the 10th March, 1849, states: “The present Chief Justice, H. S. Chapman, Esq., of the Southern Province, lives here, and has done much by his good example to encourage the activity and industry of his neighbours.” The Karori Stockade was erected on Mr. Chapman's land in the forties, as a rallying place and refuge for the surrounding settlers. It was erected under the supervision of Mr. A. C. Strode, on the high ground south of the Main Road, and about opposite the English Church. It was apparently never used as a refuge (Best's “Old Redoubts,” p. 18, N.Z. Inst., vol. 53). The site of 5 acres was given by Mr. Chapman for the English Church and Cemetery.
In 1846 the dwellings of some of the labouring settlers were clustered so as to have the appearance of a village near Mr. Chapman's house. A building had been erected to serve the united purpose of chapel and school, and a shop had been opened. At a fete in 1847, on the opening of the Chapel, it was remarked that out of the whole population of over 200 souls, no death had occurred within a twelvemonth. The anniversary of the settlement was celebrated on Wednesday, March 4th, 1851, as on former years, by a tea meeting. The attendance was numerous, comprising the bulk of the Karori population, with friends from Wellington. Addresses were delivered by Revs. J. Watkin, Inglis, Green and Woodward. “Mr. Hurst's garden is well worth visiting,” states the “A. and N.Z. Gazette,” 14/6/1851. In 1852, church services were held, the first being in Mr. Stephen Lancaster's house, called later “Chesney Wold.” The house is still (1929) standing. A small hall was built on land given by Mr. Haire. This stood on the site of the present Council Chambers. Church services were held here, and a few of the old residents are buried in the vicinity, under the Council Chambers. The writer was informed by Mr. J. Eagle, of Parkvale Road, that three people, to his knowledge, named Collins, Brodie, and Kelt, were interred there, and that the friends and relatives successfully protested against dances being held in the Council Chambers.
The original Mental Hospital was established at Karori in the early fifties, accommodating a few patients. The first person to be admitted entered the institution in 1854, and it was four years before a second patient was presented. These two were alive in 1897 when the establishment was removed about 1875 to Mount View (“Encyclopedia New Zealand,” vol. 1, p. 357).
Fig. 98.—Homewood, Karori, 1849. The residence of Mr. Justice H. S. Chapman, and birthplace of Ernest, Arthur, Catherine, and Sir F. R. Chapman. Photo from a painting by C. D. Barraud, Esq., an old friend of the family. The property included a portion of the Cemetery area.
Fig. 99.—Karori Cemetery, 1896. The Tustin (1892) plot is on the left; Major Atkinson's (Sir Harry) Cross on the right of the Chapel. Mr. George Bell's cowshed may be seen at the foot of the hill, by the trees. Dryden's Corner (being widened, 1929) just off the picture to the left.
Karori was created a borough in 1891, the first Mayor being Mr. A. Lancaster. The councillors for 1896 were: Messrs. H. Dryden, C. Dasent, F. W. Lewar, J. F. Spiers, and E. Platt. Mr. W. F. England was borough clerk and Mr. Bradnock ranger, etc. The “Cyclopedia of New Zealand,” vol. 1, describes Karori as a suburban borough, about 3 miles from town, and best known by its pleasure gardens, kept by Mr. W. H. Young. Mr. Henry Jackson, in the same volume, mentions that after the survey of the town was completed, the survey party was engaged in cutting lines on the Karori Road. The Devil's Bridge was named by him. Mr. Brees reported, on the 2nd March, 1843, that the Karori road had nearly reached the stream. In his “Pictorial New Zealand” he states: “Karori is the only rural district in immediate connection with Thorndon.” He shows a table of distances from Wellington to the bridge over the Karori stream (18/8/1844) in his “Pictorial New Zealand,” and mentions that the present road to Karori commenced at a valley at the back of Thorndon (Hawkestone Street and Tinakori Road).
The Almanac for 1863 contains the following advertisement:—“Dixon's Karori Hotel, City of Wellington, 3 minutes walk from Government Buildings.” (This was later Gillespie's.)
The residents on the Karori Road in 1866 were:—Messrs. Andrews, G. Baker, N. Benge, G. T. Bell, J. D. Benge, J. Bowler, J. D. Calway, — Cosgrove, D. Duck, — Firth, S. Gawith, — Gibson, — Hawthorne, K. Irons, J. Leighton, Mrs. S. Mason, Mr. Martin (schoolmaster), — Monk, W. O'Neill, J. Peers, — Randall, C. Simmonds, J. Smith, E. Thorby, — Tabor, — Wamby. South Karori: J. Booth, J. Brown, W. Brown, Mrs. G. Collier, T. Dunn, A. Lewer senr. and junr., H. Page, A. J. Reading, R. Tuckwell.
The “N.Z. Mirror,” dated 1st March, 1929, has an illustration on page 18, of Mr. and Mrs. Walter Hewitt's house on the Karori Road. Number 370 (Alderholt) was built sixty years ago, and was occupied by the Beauchamps, and it was here that Miss Beauchamp, under the name of “Katherine Mansfield,” wrote many of the books which made her famous.
The cemetery in St. Mary's churchyard contains many plots of the “identities,” including E. Standen 1869, E. Allington 1870, J. Cornford 1874, J. P. Jones 1879, J. Aplin 1878, R. T. Gaskin 1878, M. Hudson 1884, P. Kingdon 1887, M. Egan 1887, Mr. Lancaster 1886, Mr. Cole 1889, Pratt 1893. Miss Amelia Pepper is said to have been the first one buried there. Amongst other plots are the Barnes, Shotter, Lewer and Captain Sedcole, whose tall wooden memorial is indecipherable.
The Public Cemetery is approached from Chaytor Street, or old Karori Road, and was opened in 1891. From information courteously supplied by Mr. E. H. Harlen, from whom the writer was able to obtain an early photo, the first three burials were: F. W. Fish, an infant, 1/8/1891; Hessell Dorothy Liviston, 4/2/1892; and Henry C. Lake, 6/2/1892. A memorial cherry tree was planted in the soldiers portion by the page 242 officers of the American Navy during their visit to New Zealand in 1925. This tree grows near the memorial Lychgate, on the south side. A kauri tree was planted by Sir James Allen as a memorial to the gallant boys buried there. A reproduction of a photo of this incident, taken by the Crown Studio, appeared in an issue of the “Dominion” 12/11/1926. Illustrations of the Reservoir were shown in the “New Zealand Mail,” 12/6/1907, and the Cyclopedia, Vol. 1, pp. 222, 467 and 797, show the pleasure gardens, etc., in 1896. The Karori stream meanders through the Karori Park, and flows into the sea near Tongue Point.
Kelburn. Approached by cable car which leaves Kelburn Avenue, off Lambton Quay, at short intervals, or by The Terrace to Salamanca Road, Upland Road, etc., is named after Viscount Kelburne, the eldest son of the Earl of Glasgow, Governor of New Zealand, 1892–1897. The name was at first correctly spelt, but the “e” was dropped to avoid confusion with “Kilbirnie.” Or else that it was put right on a suggestion of Lord Kelburn, and that it was named after a seat of Lord Glasgow, as Fairlie Terrace was named after another seat of the family.* About 1860, Mr. Wm. Moxham, who arrived by the “Montmorency” in 1858, leased a few acres of the Educational Reserve, now the Botanical Gardens, and acquired the Upland Farm, of 113 acres. Coleridge's plan, 1880, and Tronson's, 1888, shows the farm, bounded by the Botanical Gardens, Native Reserve XVb, and The Terrace district below Mitchelltown. The farm was sold in 1896. An undated plan shows sections 1 to 64, sold by Mr. J. B. Harcourt. A copy of this is lodged in the Harbour Board Office as No. 37/33. Knight's Farm, was auctioned by Bethune and Co. on 15th December, 1905 (W.H.B., 36/33).
The writer has in front of him a view of Kelburn taken from a photo and reproduced in the “New Zealand Mail,” August 1904. The Kelburn car power house is in the foreground, a cable car, some large pines, and a few houses on the hills, complete the picture. Mr. A. Young's house was one of the first to appear on the scene. The same view, taken on the 12th June, 1907, adds the Tea Kiosk and a few more houses, and gives a general idea of improvement. The visitor to Wellington, with a few moments to spare, will, by entering the cable car, which takes one to the top of the hill, and descending, for a few yards to the right, the path to the Observatory, obtain one of the finest views to be seen anywhere.
Mr. Frank Bullen, when he visited New Zealand on his lecturing tour, looked down on Wellington from Kelburn top, and wrote:
“It is not often given to the citizens of an important city to be able to get from their offices in a few minutes to homes that occupy exquisitely beautiful points of vantage as regards scenery, and at the same time command an area of immense extent of the sea and harbour of their city. This is essentially the case in Wellington. It is an advantage that is fully appreciated, judging from the extraordinary development that, has taken place during the last few years. Here are to be seen splendid avenues of traffic bounded on both sides by grand buildings, where a generation ago the sullen sea beat incessantly upon long. barren, shallow beaches.”
The “Weekly Illustrated” shows some very charming pictures of Kelburn under snow, from photos by A. W. Schaef, depicting a portion of Kelburn Parade and the Park, taken on the 23rd September, 1926.
* See Cyclo. of N.Z., Vol. I., p. 25.
Fig. 101.—Kelburn-Karori Cable Car route, from the summit, 1900. This tramway procures rapid transit from the City via Kelburn Avenue, Lambton Quay, to Observatory Hill, from which a particularly fine view of Port Nicholson is obtained. Mr. Martin Kennedy's house (destroyed by fire some years ago) may be seen to the left of the tunnel. Gay flowers and native shrubs grow in profusion on each side of the route.
Fig. 102.—Victoria University, 1926. Kelburn Park is in the foreground, and Kelburn Parade in the centre of the picture.
Kelburn Parade, Kelburn, is off Salamanca Road via The Terrace, Mount Street and Devon and Glasgow Streets.
The Victoria University is approached from here, and from a short cut over the “Belt,” can be seen the clustered lights of the city, the coloured lights of the wharves reflected in the harbour, and the twinkling circle of lights surrounding the Hutt, Petone and Day's Bay foreshore, which impress one with the beauty of Wellington by night.
Kent Terrace, Te Aro, approached by Courtenay Place, Vivian and Buckle Streets, and named, about 87 years ago, after the Duke of Kent, the father of Queen Victoria, was formerly bounded on one side by the drain shown in a view taken from Mount Victoria, shewing the swamp after the elevation of the ground by the earthquake of 1855. (Fig. 71.) This drain is now confined to a culvert, and over it garden plots extend from end to end. These have taken the place of the plantation of native shrubs and cabbage trees, shown in the “Free Lance,” 10/11/1926. This plantation took the place of the first pine trees avenue, as illustrated in the “New Zealand Mail,” August 10th, 1904. This view shows the first horse car used in Wellington.
An article in the “Post,” dated 18th December, 1926, refers to the road widening scheme in Kent Terrace, and the hundred men hauling up the cabbage trees. Many letters of protest ensued, but the one dealing with the historic associations of the locality makes the most interesting reading. This letter appeared in the “Post,” dated 8/4/1927 and signed by Mr. E. G. Pilcher.
The “Free Lance,” 13/10/26, shows three views, viz.: (1) The widening operations of Kent Terrace just prior to the arrival of the Duke and Duchess of York; (2) a geyser nearly 200 feet high, caused by a broken valve near the Queen Victoria statue; (3) showing the result of the outburst.
Fig. 103.—Job. Smith's bullock team at Kilbirnie, 1879. The late Mrs. A. Sinclair (an old resident of Ghuznee Street) informed the writer that this mode of conveyance was invariably used for jaunts and picnic parties to Newtown (Howe's Farm) and elsewhere, in the early days. Some of the youngsters arrived at their destination in a “weeping stage.”
Fig. 104.—Kilbirnie in the early nineties. Moxham Avenue runs through the centre of the view. The old Church of England in the centre, Kilbirnie Hotel near the sea front to the right. The track in the foreground was part of the road over the hills.
Fig. 105.—Kilbirnie South, and Miramar, from Melrose Hill, 1927, shewing the sand hills (shown above) now occupied by buildings.
Kilbirnie is approached by tram via Courtenay Place and Constable Street, or bus via Oriental Bay. Prominence is given to a streamlet marked “fresh water,” in Captain Herd's chart of 1826, and the Kilbirnie Isthmus was formerly known as Te Awa-a-Taia. The Almanac for 1882 describes Kilbirnie thus: “There are several pretty houses here, and one large commodious hotel. It can be reached by Newtown or past Clyde Quay, round ‘The Rocks,’ and past the Patent Slip. In a beautiful little cottage on the shore of Evans Bay live Mr. and Mrs. Hart, of ‘Happy Hours’ celebrity, who are living in a well earned retirement, from which they occasionally emerge to pay professional visits to different centres of population.”
Mr. Jas. Burke's woolscouring business opposite the hotel, was established in 1869, and the hotel (Mr. F. J. Preston, proprietor) in 1890. The Cyclopedia of N.Z., Vol. I., p. 799, stated: “A hall and pleasure gardens HeginbothaMcs, adjoining the hotel) were near the recreation ground presented by Mr. J. C. Crawford. Three churches were in operation, and the P. and T. bureau was at Mr. J. P. Jorgensen's store in Charles Street. A livery and bait stables was attached to the hotel, and the school, which was erected about 1880, had an average attendance of about 140 scholars. The teachers were Mr. G. S. M. McDermid (master), Miss Boulcott, and Misses McDermid and Oswyn, B.A.” A general view of Kilbirnie in 1895 is shown on page 801. The survey map for 1927 shows the authorised limit of reclamation, and the “Post,” 14/7/26, shows the future reclamation by a dotted line across the water from the baths to Miramar Bay.
King's Wharf, Thorndon, off Waterloo Quay, is fraught with sad memories of our gallant soldier boys, and the heroism of the mothers when bidding final farewell to them as they departed for the seat of war, 1914–1918.
Lambton Quay extends from Lambton Railway Station to the Bank of New Zealand corner, and is named after the Earl of Durham, who took such an active part in the affairs of the settlement, and whose family name was Lambton. Lambton Quay, or “The Beach,” or Strand, was the high water mark. Along this portion of the beach was a Maori Pa called Kumutoto (now Woodward Street). Canoes were drawn up on the beach and bullock teams traversed its length. The late Mr. John Plimmer, senior, referring to the beach in the early forties, states: “The first time I came up the beach, I overtook a poor woman carrying a bed. There was a heavy wash on the beach which prevented her passage with her load, so I carried her bed on my back through the water, she following in the best way she could; but we both got very wet.”
Mr. Samuel Revans, in a letter written in Captain Smith's tent at Pito-one, to Mr. H. S. Chapman (Mr. Justice) dated 6th April, 1840, mentions: “The surveyors go to survey the Lambton site to-morrow, and hope will be enabled to give out the town acres in about three months. I am so enthusiastic about the place that I am almost afraid of being guilty of apparent absurdity in my statements.”
Fig. 106.—Lambton Quay, 1841. Reading from left to right: 1 W. B. Burgess, 2 Major Heaphy's Flagstaff on Clay Point (Stewart Dawson's corner), 3 Luke Nattrass, 4 Willis and Co.'s stores, 5 Bethune and Hunter's. —From a sketch by Mr. Luke Nattrass.
Fig. 107.—Lambton Quay (Beach reclamation, 1860), looking up Willis Street. The Empire Hotel is on the left, Barrett's (second hotel of that name) to the extreme right. Mr. John Plimmer's workshop (site of Queen's Hotel, Plimmer's Steps) on the hill behind, near Clay Point.
Fig. 108.—Noah's, or Plimmer's Ark, Lambton Quay, site of the Bank of New Zealand, was constructed by Mr. Plimmer from the hulk of the “Inconstant,” which was wrecked in 1851. Some of the timber of this build- ing has been converted into a chair and placed in the Directors' Room in the Bank of New Zealand.
Wakefield, in his “Adventure in N.Z.,” p. 146, comparing the site of the first town (Pito-one or Petone), where the anchorage was exposed to a strong sea from the Heads when the winds were southerly, and the long shoal beach, was in that case lined by an inconvenient surf, which interfered with the dry landing of goods, remarked: “At Thorndon, on the contrary, the anchorage was land locked, and the largest long boats might run their noses on to a beach on which no surf could ever break, opposite the spot of which a town could be built. Looking forward to future times, it became evident that Lambton Harbour would become the seat of commerce by means of its natural capabilities.”
All along Lambton Quay and Willis Street, as far as the present “Evening Post” office, the bush covered the hillsides down to the water's edge. The reader may easily see, by looking along the alleyways in the Quay, and Willis Street, the second growth on the cuttings made for the various reclamations.
In the 'forties and 'fifties. Clay Point (Stewart Dawson corner) was in the teeth of the wind, and the wind loved to bite. The wild northerly howled around the promontory by the cheerless sea. Sometimes it was totally impossible for ladies to work a passage round that forbidding headland; it was the day of crinolines. The first notable use of the land from the Dawson corner towards Plimmer's Steps was by a Mr. Millar. He had a brick field there, and made some playthings for the great earthquake of 1855. The bricks were all right, the “cement” was the culprit. The bricks were stuck together with moist clay or a mixture of clay and sand, and they gaily parted company at the jovial earthquake's command. In time the brick works had to shift, but before they departed they had done some valuable clearing work along the front of the hills. A track sufficient for a cart along the foot of the hills, and a temporary wooden breastwork was formed to make the road, by Mr. James Brown and others.
Fig. 109.—Showing the N.Z. Insurance building (now N.Z. House) to the left, and the Athenaeum in the centre.
Fig. 111.—The Quay, 1900. The building at the left (Midland Hotel site) was the hotel adjoining the Theatre Royal, in Johnston Street (site of Police Headquarters). The hotel was accessible to the lounge of the theatre. The German Band is here seen at the corner. The Occidental Hotel (now Kirkcaldie and Stains) is opposite. The Dresden (later the Bristol) Piano Company's rooms, and the Economic (now merged in the D.I.C.) are at the next corner. The horse tram was in operation. Lindsay's Corner (Woodward Street) is at the extreme right.
The panoramic sketches known as Nattrass' and reproduced by McKee and Gamble about 1900, shows the raupo houses, stores and frame buildings existing in 1840 and 1841. These are numbered 1 to 52, copies of which may be seen in the Dominion Museum and Turnbull Library. Mr. H. W. Preston has a copy hanging up in his office in Stout Street. The line of buildings extends from Oriental Bay to Bellsize Point (corner of Davis Street and Thorndon Quay). The writer has classified the portions of the sketch to coincide with the arrangement of the streets. Commencing from Hay and Co.'s stores, near where a boat is hauled up, at the corner of Mulgrave Street and opposite the Thistle Inn, we see Barrett's Hotel. (Figs. 34a and 34b, p. 97.)